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Pathways  Apoptosis

Apoptosis  
Click To View Pathway AKT Signaling Pathway
Many cell-surface receptors induce production of second messengers like PIP3, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, that convey signals to the cytoplasm from the cell surface. PIP3 signals activates the kinase PDK1, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent p ...
Click To View Pathway Apoptotic DNA fragmentation and tissue homeostasis
Apoptotic cell death can be triggered by many different cellular stimuli, resulting in activation of apoptotic signaling pathways including caspases (see Caspase Cascade pathway) and mitochondria (see Role of Mitochondria in Apoptotic Signaling pathw ...
Click To View Pathway Apoptotic Signaling in Response to DNA Damage
The cellular activation of the caspase cascade resulting in cell death is triggered by chemical damage to DNA which stimulates a sequence resulting in the cleavage of Bid in a manner similar to the binding of so called “death-receptors” or directly i ...
Click To View Pathway ATM Signaling Pathway
The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM) encodes a protein kinase that acts as a tumor suppressor. ATM activation by ionizing radiation damage to DNA stimulates DNA repair and blocks progression through the cell cycle. Mutation of the ATM gene ca ...
Click To View Pathway Caspase Cascade in Apoptosis
Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is triggered by a variety of stimuli, including cell surface receptors like FAS, mitochondrial response to stress, and cytotoxic T cells. Caspases are a class of cysteine proteases that includes several representativ ...
Click To View Pathway cdc25 and chk1 Regulatory Pathway in response to DNA damage
Cdc25 is a protein phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylating and activating cdc2, a crucial step in regulating the entry of all eukaryotic cells into the M-phase of the cell cycle. Cdc25 is phosphorylated throughout interphase but not in mitosis. ...
Click To View Pathway D4-GDI Signaling Pathway
D4-GDI (GDP dissociation inhibitor) is a negative regulator of the ras related Rho Family of GTPases. Since the rho GTPases promote cytoskeletal and membrane changes associated with apoptotic cell death, the removal of the D4-GDI block through its cl ...
Click To View Pathway Degradation of the RAR and RXR by the proteasome
Once retinoids are bound by the RAR/RXR heterodimer they became transcriptional activated. As a consequence they are degraded by the proteasome. Phosphorylation in the activation domain one (AF1) and presence of the activation domain 2 (AF2) triger t ...
Click To View Pathway FAS signaling pathway ( CD95 )
Receptors in the TNF receptor family are associated with the induction of apoptosis, as well as inflammatory signaling. The Fas receptor (CD95) mediates apoptotic signaling by Fas-ligand expressed on the surface of other cells. The Fas-FasL interacti ...
Click To View Pathway Free Radical Induced Apoptosis
Oxidative stress is one factor that can trigger programmed cell death. Activated neutrophils responding to inflammatory stimulation produce reactive oxygen species like superoxide free radicals to kill invading bacteria, but these reactive oxygen spe ...
Click To View Pathway GADD34-mediated Dephosphorylatoin of eIF2a in Stress Response Pathway
Translation initiation is inhi
Click To View Pathway Granzyme A mediated Apoptosis Pathway
One mechanism used by cytotoxic T cells to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells is the release of perforin and granzyme proteins. Perforin proteins form pores in the membranes of the attacked cell, allowing the entry of Granzyme A and Granzyme ...
Click To View Pathway HIV Induced T Cell Apoptosis
HIV infection is associated with immunosuppression caused by a dramatic reduction in the helper T cell population. The loss of helper T cells may be caused by HIV-induced apoptosis of both infected and uninfected helper T cells. HIV uses the CCR5 che ...
Click To View Pathway HIV-I Nef: negative effector of Fas and TNF
HIV infection leads to drastic declines in CD4 T helper cells, in part through apoptosis of uninfected cells. Apoptosis of uninfected cells may be induced through the expression of Fas ligand on the surface of HIV-infected cells, stimulating the Fas- ...
Click To View Pathway Hypoxia and p53 in the Cardiovascular system
Hypoxic stress, like DNA damage, induces p53 protein accumulation and p53-dependent apoptosis in oncogenically transformed cells. Unlike DNA damage, hypoxia does not induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest, suggesting that p53 activity is differential ...
Click To View Pathway Induction of apoptosis through DR3 and DR4/5 Death Receptors
Apoptosis is specifically induced via signaling through a family of receptors known collectively as 'death receptors' including Fas, TNFR, DR3, -4 and -5. Death receptor ligands characteristically initiate signaling via receptor oligomerization, recr ...
Click To View Pathway Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Complex
The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a multiprotein complex located at the contact site between inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. MPTP plays an important role in the initiation and regulation of apoptosis. MPTP has been pre ...
Click To View Pathway Multiple antiapoptotic pathways from IGF-1R signaling lead to BAD phosphorylation
IGF-1R, the type 1 receptor for insulin-like growth factor, mediates cell survival and growth in response to its ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2. This tyrosine kinase receptor is widely expressed in many cell types and is a key mediator of growth. Overexpr ...
Click To View Pathway Neuropeptides VIP and PACAP inhibit the apoptosis of activated T cells
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the structurally related pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), two neuropeptides present in the lymphoid microenvironment, elicit a broad spectrum of biological functions, including the mo ...
Click To View Pathway Opposing roles of AIF in Apoptosis and Cell Survival
Programmed cell death is induced by many different factors and involves numerous signaling pathways, some dependent on caspase proteases and others that are caspase independent. Like cytochrome C, AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) is a protein found in ...
Click To View Pathway OX40 Signaling Pathway
Two key features of the immune system are the clonal expansion of B cells and T cells in response to antigens, and the potentiation of future immune responses by long-lived memory cells. CD4 expressing T cells require costimulatory signals along wit ...
Click To View Pathway p53 Signaling Pathway
p53 is a transcription factor who's activity is regulated by phosphorylation. The function is p53 is to keep the cell from progressing through the cell cycle if there is damage to DNA present. It may do this in multiple ways from holding the cell at ...
Click To View Pathway Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis Pathway
The main components of biological membranes are phosphoglyceride lipids composed of a glycerol unit esterified to two fatty acids and a polar alcohol group. The properties of phospholipids give lipid bilayer membranes their self-organizing structure. ...
Click To View Pathway Proteasome Complex
Attachment of the ubiquitin
Click To View Pathway PTEN dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene. Recombinant PTEN is capable of dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate[PI(3,4,5)P3], the product of phosphatidylinositol 3 -kinase. Many of the cancer-related mutations have been mapped to the phosph ...
Click To View Pathway Puma and Noxa Proteins Mediate p53- and Drug-induced Apoptotic Responses
DNA damage can cause cell cycle arrest or apoptosis; both responses provoked by DNA damage require the p53 tumor suppressor. These responses are activated by different forms of imposed stress (cytokine deprivation, cytotoxic drugs, radiation) or by t ...
Click To View Pathway RB Tumor Suppressor/Checkpoint Signaling in response to DNA damage
Cell cycle checkpoint controls at the G1 to S transition and the G2 to M transition prevent the cell cycle from progressing when DNA is damaged. The ATM protein kinase detects DNA damage and in response to this activates DNA repair factors and inhibi ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of BAD phosphorylation
The function of the pro-apoptotic molecule BAD is regulated by phosphorylation of three sites (ser 112,136 and 155). Phosphorylation at these sites results in loss of the ability of BAD to heterodimerize with the survival proteins BCL-XL or BCL-2. Ph ...
Click To View Pathway Role of BRCA1, BRCA2 and ATR in Cancer Susceptibility
BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified genetically as breast cancer susceptibility genes when a single copy of the gene is mutated and are involved in the cellular response to DNA damage, including blocking cell cycle progression and inducing DNA repair to ...
Click To View Pathway Role of MEF2D in T-cell Apoptosis
Mef2 (Myocyte enhancer factor 2) transcription factors play a role in T-Cell Calcium Induced Apoptosis. Several factors regulate Mef2 transcription factors, including Map kinases and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes.

See also Control of s ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Mitochondria in Apoptotic Signaling
Mitochondria participate in apoptotic signaling pathways through the release of mitochondrial proteins into the cytoplasm. Cytochrome c, a key protein in electron transport, is released from mitochondria in response to apoptotic signals, and activate ...
Click To View Pathway Role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of apoptosis
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are essential for neuromuscular signaling and are also expressed in non-neuronal tissues, where their function is less clear. Although nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are primarily known for their action as ligand ...
Click To View Pathway SODD/TNFR1 Signaling Pathway
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily contains several members with homologous cytoplasmic domains known as death domains (DD). The intracellular DD are important in initiating apoptosis and other signaling pathways following ligand bi ...
Click To View Pathway Stress Induction of HSP Regulation
Mammalian cells can respond to a variety of stresses such as heat, cold, oxidative stress, metabolic disturbance, and environmental toxins through necrotic or apoptotic cell death, while increased expression and phosphorylation of heat shock proteins ...
Click To View Pathway The SARS-coronavirus Life Cycle
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has affected thousands of individuals, causing fever, and pneumonia with a mortality rate estimated at 10-18%. A novel coronavirus has been identified as the cause agent and its genome has been sequenced. Hum ...
Click To View Pathway TNFR1 Signaling Pathway
TNFR1 (a.k.a. p55, CD120a) is the receptor for TNF(alpha) and also will bind TNF(beta). Upon binding TNF(alpha) a TNFR1+ cell is triggered to undergo apoptosis. This critical regulatory process is accomplished by activating the proteolytic caspase ca ...
Click To View Pathway TNFR2 Signaling Pathway
TNFR2 is the receptor for the 171 amino acid 19 kD TNF(beta) (a.k.a. lymphotoxin). TNF(beta) is produced by activated lymphocytes and can be cytotoxic to many tumor and other cells. In neutrophils, endothelial cells and osteoclasts TNF(beta) can lead ...
Click To View Pathway Toll-Like Receptor Pathway
The innate immune response responds in a general manner to factors present in invading pathogens. Bacterial factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin), bacterial lipoproteins, peptidoglycans and also CpG nucleic acids activate innate immuni ...
Click To View Pathway Trefoil Factors Initiate Mucosal Healing
Maintaining the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract despite the continual presence of microbial flora and injurious agents is essential. Epithelial repair requires restitution and regeneration. During restitution, epithelial cells spread and migr ...
Click To View Pathway TSP-1 Induced Apoptosis in Microvascular Endothelial Cell
As tissues grow they require angiogenesis to occur if they are to be supplied with blood vessels and survive. Factors that inhibit angiogenesis might act as cancer therapeutics by blocking vessel formation in tumors and starving cancer cells. Thrombo ...
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