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Pathways  Cell Activation

Cell Activation  
Click To View Pathway Actions of Nitric Oxide in the Heart
Nitric oxide (NO) has a number of important physiological actions in the cardiovascular system. In the heart, NO plays role in keeping the vessels patent via vasodilation and prevention of platelet aggregation. It also plays an important role in re ...
Click To View Pathway Activation of Src by Protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha
Progression through the cell cycle is accompanied by activation of the proto-oncogene c-Src, a protein tyrosine kinase. Overexpression of Src leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple protein substrates and cellular transformation. During inter ...
Click To View Pathway Adaptive Immune Response to Cancer Cells
Tumours arise and progress within a microenvironment that is replete with healthy, non-transformed cells. Crosstalk between normal and neoplastic cells influence various stages of carcinogenesis. Cancer-bearing hosts can frequently mount innate and a ...
Click To View Pathway ADP-Ribosylation Factor
ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, members of the Ras GTPase superfamily that were initially recognized and purified because of their ability to stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the cholera ...
Click To View Pathway AKAP95 role in mitosis and chromosome dynamics
The chromatin packaging of the genome is dynamic, changing with the cell cycle and with transcriptional regulation. During mitosis, chromatin is condensed for segregation of chromosomes, while for transcription chromatin is more open. The nuclear m ...
Click To View Pathway Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 regulates heart function
Cardiovascular diseases are predicted to be the most common cause of death worldwide by 2020. The major regulator of blood pressure homeostasis is the renin-angiotensis system. Angiotensinogen is digested by renin to produce angiotensin I (AGT I). ...
Click To View Pathway Aspirin Blocks Signaling Pathway Involved in Platelet Activation
Activation of the protease-activated GPCRs in platelets contributes to platelet activation in clotting. The protease-activated receptors PAR1 and PAR4 are cleaved by the protease thrombin, releasing a tethered peptide ligand that activates the recep ...
Click To View Pathway Basic Mechanisms of SUMOylation
Like ubiquitin, SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) proteins are small protein tags that are conjugated to proteins to modify their function. The ubiquitin system tags proteins for degradation by the proteosome (see Proteosome pathway) but SUMO ...
Click To View Pathway Cellular signalling targets of the BAG family of proteins
Click To View Pathway Chromatin Remodeling by hSWI/SNF ATP-dependent Complexes
The eukaryotic genome is packaged by histone and nonhistone proteins to form chromatin. The assembly of nucleosomesas well as compaction of nucleosomal arrays into higher-order chromatin structures create a highly restrictive environment for nuclear ...
Click To View Pathway Cycling of Ran in nucleocytoplasmic transport
Ran is a member of the Ras family of small GTPases. Ran is an important component of many crucial nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways. The cycling of Ran is controlled by the RanGTP- RanGDP gradient established by the Ran Guanine nucleotide exchan ...
Click To View Pathway Evasion of Innate Immunity by Protozoan Parasites
'Protozoan infections are a major global health problem, affectingover half a billion people world wide. Several of the diseases they induce (such as malaria, African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis) represent major causes of mortality and ...
Click To View Pathway FOSB gene expression and drug abuse
Drug addiction is associated with long-term behavioral changes, suggesting a long-lived transcriptional regulator that responds to chronic drug exposure might cause long-term changes in neuronal function. Neurons in the nucleus accumbens and striati ...
Click To View Pathway Lck and Fyn tyrosine kinases in initiation of TCR Activation
T cell activation is initiated by recognition of antigen by the T cell receptor (TCR) in the context of Class II MHC on an antigen-presenting cell. The T cell receptor contains multiple subunits and interacts with several factors to transduce antigen ...
Click To View Pathway MURF2 Assisted Muofibril Assembly
Assembly of muscle sarcomeres is a complex dynamic process and involves a large number of proteins. A growing number of such proteins have regulatory functions and are transiently present in the myofibrils. MURF2 is an example of a protein, that acts ...
Click To View Pathway Nerve growth factor pathway (NGF)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of a family of neurotrophins that induce the survival and proliferation of neurons. In cell culture NGF induces the formation of neurite projections and in vivo may stimulate the innervation of tissues. NGF plays a ...
Click To View Pathway NO2-dependent IL 12 Pathway in NK cells
Macrophages and NK cells help provide innate immunity against infection by intracellular parasites and communicate with each other to regulate this process. When stimulated, macrophages secrete the cytokine IL-12 that is essential for activation of ...
Click To View Pathway Phagocyte superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are prominent cellular members of the immune system. Their function is to ingest exogenous particles and microbes and to kill phagocytosed microorganisms. Their microbicidal activity depends on the interactions of a wid ...
Click To View Pathway PLGF: A Key Player in Pathological Angiogenesis
Many proliferative diseases, most typically cancer, are driven by uncontrolled blood vessel growth. Interfering with the molecular players, responsible for tumor angiogenesis, offers many therapeutic opportunities to compromise tumor angiogenesis, gr ...
Click To View Pathway Proepithelin Conversion to Epithelin and Wound Repair Control
This diagram illustrates the opposing effects that Proepithelin (PEPI) and the elastase digest fragments, the epithelins (EPIa-g), have on epithelial growth and neutrophil activation. PEPI (also known as progranulin, PC-cell derived growth factor an ...
Click To View Pathway Role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of apoptosis
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are essential for neuromuscular signaling and are also expressed in non-neuronal tissues, where their function is less clear. Although nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are primarily known for their action as ligand ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Tob in T-cell activation
Regulation of T cell activation is a crucial component of balanced functioning of the immune system. If the T cell response is too great and activation of self-responsive cells or unstimulated cells is not suppressed, then autoimmune disorders or ti ...
Click To View Pathway Selective expression of chemokine receptors during T-cell polarization
Chemokine receptors expressed by T helper cells help recruit cells to specific locations based on their chemoattractant ligands. The polarization of T cells into Th1 and Th2 cells is associated with their expression of different subsets of chemokine ...
Click To View Pathway Stress Induction of HSP Regulation
Mammalian cells can respond to a variety of stresses such as heat, cold, oxidative stress, metabolic disturbance, and environmental toxins through necrotic or apoptotic cell death, while increased expression and phosphorylation of heat shock proteins ...
Click To View Pathway TACI and BCMA stimulation of B cell immune responses.
TACI and BCMA signal transduction pathway that enhances cell survival APRIL and BAFF (also called TALL-I and BLyS) are TNF family members that act as ligands for the BCMA and TACI receptors. Both APRIL and BAFF bind to both the BCMA and TACI receptor ...
Click To View Pathway Th1/Th2 Differentiation
Helper T cells are found in two distinct cell types, Th1 and Th2, distinguished by the cytokines they produce and respond to and the immune responses they are involved in. Th1 cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFN-g, TNF-b and IL-2, whil ...
Click To View Pathway The 4-1BB-dependent immune response
The activation of T cells requires a co-stimulatory signal with T cell receptor activation, provided in many cases by activation of CD28 in resting T cells. 4-1BB (CD137) is a member of the TNF receptor gene family that provides another T cell co-st ...
Click To View Pathway The Co-Stimulatory Signal During T-cell Activation
For a T cell to be activated by a specific antigen, the T cell receptor must recognize complexes of MHCI with the antigen on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. T cells and the T cell receptor complex do not respond to antigen in solution, but ...
Click To View Pathway Ub/Proteosome System in EBV-associated Malignancies
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the development of a variety of malignancies, including Hodgkin lymphoma. One of the few viral transcripts expressed in EBV-positive Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma is latent membrane ...
Click To View Pathway Y branching of actin filaments
Mammalian cell motility requires actin polymerization in the direction of movement to change membrane shape and extend cytoplasm into lamellipodia. The polymerization of actin to drive cell movement also involves branching of actin filaments into a ...
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