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Pathways  Cell Cycle Regulation

Cell Cycle Regulation  
Click To View Pathway Activation of Src by Protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha
Progression through the cell cycle is accompanied by activation of the proto-oncogene c-Src, a protein tyrosine kinase. Overexpression of Src leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple protein substrates and cellular transformation. During inter ...
Click To View Pathway AKAP95 role in mitosis and chromosome dynamics
The chromatin packaging of the genome is dynamic, changing with the cell cycle and with transcriptional regulation. During mitosis, chromatin is condensed for segregation of chromosomes, while for transcription chromatin is more open. The nuclear m ...
Click To View Pathway Aurora B Kinases in Regulation of Cell Division
Aurora family of highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases regulates many processes during cell division. Aurora B kinases are essential for chromosome condensation, kinetochore function, cytokinesis and the proper function of the spindle-ass ...
Click To View Pathway BTG family proteins and cell cycle regulation
BTG2 is found to be one of the immediate early genes up-regulated by neural growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Its transcriptional level is also up-regulated by p53, gamma radiation, adriamycin and UV treatment of cells. BTG seems ...
Click To View Pathway cdc25 and chk1 Regulatory Pathway in response to DNA damage
Cdc25 is a protein phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylating and activating cdc2, a crucial step in regulating the entry of all eukaryotic cells into the M-phase of the cell cycle. Cdc25 is phosphorylated throughout interphase but not in mitosis. ...
Click To View Pathway CDK Regulation of DNA Replication
Initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotes is a highly conserved, multi-step process (replication licensing) designed to restrict initiation events to once per replication origin per S phase. Its control has been uncovered by the discovery of the cy ...
Click To View Pathway Cell Cycle: G1/S Check Point
The G1/S cell cycle checkpoint controls the passage of eukaryotic cells from the first 'gap' phase (G1) into the DNA synthesis phase (S). Two cell cycle kinases, CDK4/6-cyclin D and CDK2-cyclin E, and the transcription complex that includes Rb and E2 ...
Click To View Pathway Cell Cycle: G2/M Checkpoint
The G2/M DNA damage checkpoint prevents the cell from entering mitosis (M phase) if the genome is damaged. The Cdc2-cyclin B kinase is pivotal in regulating this transition. During G2 phase, Cdc2 is maintained in an inactive state by the kinases Wee1 ...
Click To View Pathway Condensin I Complex
Condensins complexes are intra-molecular DNA linkers required for chromosome dynamics that include mitotic chromosome condensation, chromatid cohesion and recombinational repair. Condensin was named after the process of condensation during mitosis. T ...
Click To View Pathway Cyclin E Destruction Pathway
Cyclins are proteins that associate with cyclin-dependent protein kinases to regulate their activity and the progression of the cell cycle through specific checkpoints. Disruption of cyclin action can lead to either cell cycle arrest, or to uncontr ...
Click To View Pathway Cyclins and Cell Cycle Regulation
The cell cycle is regulated by the interplay of many molecules. Key among these are the cyclins which are expressed and then degraded in a concerted fashion to drive the stages of the cell cycle. Cyclins combine with cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) t ...
Click To View Pathway Estrogen-responsive protein Efp controls cell cycle and breast tumors growth
The estrogen-inducible RING finger protein Efp stimulates proliferation of breast cancer cells. 14-3-3 is p53-inducible protein that sequesters mitotic Cdks in the cytoplasm to inhibit entry into mitosis. To allow cell-cycle progression, estrogens st ...
Click To View Pathway Hypoxia and p53 in the Cardiovascular system
Hypoxic stress, like DNA damage, induces p53 protein accumulation and p53-dependent apoptosis in oncogenically transformed cells. Unlike DNA damage, hypoxia does not induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest, suggesting that p53 activity is differential ...
Click To View Pathway Influence of Ras and Rho proteins on G1 to S Transition
The cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase is a key regulatory point in the cell cycle. This transition is regulated by the checkpoint kinase cdk2 that activates the G1 to S transition when it is associated with cyclin E. Cdk2/Cyclin E causes the ...
Click To View Pathway Interactions of Kinetochore Protein Complexes
The spindle checkpoint is a cell cycle surveillance mechanism and defects in this mechanism contribute to chromosome instability. Genetic instability in human cancers is characterized by abnormal number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) in the cancer cells ...
Click To View Pathway Meiotic Arrest in Oogenesis
Mammalian oogenesis is marked by a prolonged pause in meiosis II that can last many years for human oocytes. This meiotic arrest is not released to complete meiosis until after fertilization, at which time the second polar body is released, and the ...
Click To View Pathway Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Signalling and Cell Cycle Progression
Many human cancers require the production of soluble growth factors for tumour initiation, promotion and survival. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine, is important for, and directly contributes to, normal cell division as wel ...
Click To View Pathway Nedd8 Driven Cycle and COP9 Signalosome
The ubiquitin (Ub) system is the most important proteolytic machinery in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the regulation of essential cellular processes such as the cell cycle, signal transduction and antigen processing. In recent years the contro ...
Click To View Pathway Nucleosome Organization
The eukaryotic chromosome exhibits different levels of chromatin organization, starting with the nucleosomes, which wrap DNA on the surface of histones, and ending with the highly condensed and folded structure of the mitotic chromosome. Histones are ...
Click To View Pathway p53 Signaling Pathway
p53 is a transcription factor who's activity is regulated by phosphorylation. The function is p53 is to keep the cell from progressing through the cell cycle if there is damage to DNA present. It may do this in multiple ways from holding the cell at ...
Click To View Pathway Protein Kinase A at the Centrosome
Protein kinase A regulatory subunit RIIalpha (PKA-RIIa) is tightly bound to centrosomal structures during interphase through interaction with the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP350 (also known as AKAP450 and CGNAP), MAP2 and Pericentrin. This diagra ...
Click To View Pathway PTEN dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene. Recombinant PTEN is capable of dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate[PI(3,4,5)P3], the product of phosphatidylinositol 3 -kinase. Many of the cancer-related mutations have been mapped to the phosph ...
Click To View Pathway RB Tumor Suppressor/Checkpoint Signaling in response to DNA damage
Cell cycle checkpoint controls at the G1 to S transition and the G2 to M transition prevent the cell cycle from progressing when DNA is damaged. The ATM protein kinase detects DNA damage and in response to this activates DNA repair factors and inhibi ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of cell cycle progression by Plk3
The focus of this pathway is to illustrate the role of Polo-like Kinase 3 (Plk3 also known as Prk and Fnk) as part of the regulatory cascade leading to apoptosis and the arrest cell cycle progression prior to M phase. Phosphorlyation of Cdc25C on se ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Histone H3 Phosphorylation
The cellular mechanisms for condensing and decondensing chromatin play critical roles in mitosis, apoptosis, replication, repair, recombination and transcription. DNA-binding proteins, such as histones, control the level of DNA condensation. For exam ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of p27 Phosphorylation during Cell Cycle Progression
p27/Kip1 regulates the cell cycle by inhibiting the checkpoint kinase cdk2/cyclin E and blocking cell cycle progression through the G1-S transition. Cancer cells in some cases have reduced levels of p27, supporting the importance of p27 in cell cycl ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Splicing through Sam68
While transcriptional regulation is often viewed as the most prevalent way extracellular signals to regulate gene expression, post-transcriptional regulation of splicing, RNA stability, and translation are also regulated by extracellular signals. Sa ...
Click To View Pathway Role of APC in Mitosis
Genetic instability in human cancers is characterized by abnormal number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) in the cancer cells. The spindle checkpoint is a cell cycle surveillance mechanism and defects in this mechanism contribute to chromosome instability ...
Click To View Pathway Role of BRCA1, BRCA2 and ATR in Cancer Susceptibility
BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified genetically as breast cancer susceptibility genes when a single copy of the gene is mutated and are involved in the cellular response to DNA damage, including blocking cell cycle progression and inducing DNA repair to ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Ran in mitotic spindle regulation
One of the central features of mitotic cell division is the formation of the spindle that segregates chromosomes into each daughter cell. Chromosomes are not just passengers along for a ride with the spindle, but active participants in the nucleatio ...
Click To View Pathway Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) Receptor Ptc1 Regulates cell cycle
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted protein identified genetically as an important developmental factor. Shh provides a morphogenic signal in the developing CNS, organizing the spatial patterning of cells in the midbrain and inducing proliferation of ...
Click To View Pathway Stathmin and breast cancer resistance to antimicrotubule agents
Stathmin is a ubiquitous, cytosolic 19-kDa protein, which is phosphorylated on up to four sites in response to many regulatory signals within cells. Its molecular characterization indicates a functional organization including an N-terminal regulatory ...
Click To View Pathway Telomeres, Telomerase, Cellular Aging, and Immortality
Telomeres, which define the ends of chromosomes, consist of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences loosely conserved in eukaryotes. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex ( we only show a few of the components in this illustration) which in vitro ...
Click To View Pathway The Mitotic Kinase Aurora Stimulation by TPX2
One of the most critical steps during cell cycle progression is the correct segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis. This process depends on the reorganization of the interphase microtubules (MTs) into a highly dynamic bipolar array known as ...
Click To View Pathway Tumor Suppressor Arf Inhibits Ribosomal Biogenesis
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A (CDKN2A) goes by the colloquial designation p16, which is sometimes referred to as p16(INK4). The alpha transcript of CDKN2A has been shown to encode p16(INK4a), a recognized tumor suppressor that induces a G1 cel ...
Click To View Pathway Ubiquitylation in the Control of Cell Cycle
Progress through cell cycle is governed by a number of regulatory mechanisms that include cell cycle dependent expression, protein phosphorylation, subcellular distribution and protein degradation. Ubiquitin- mediated protein degradation ensures that ...
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