BioCarta - Charting Pathways of Life
Featured ProductsPathwaysCustom ServicesGene SearchProductsLog In
Home About Support Contact Us Careers News Home Advanced Search United States Europe Japan
Pathways  Cell Signaling

Cell Signaling  
Click To View Pathway Acetylation and Deacetylation of RelA in The Nucleus
The rel/NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates the activity of genes involved in the immune response, hematopoeisis, and inflammation. NF-kB is a complex of two proteins, p65 (rel) and p50. NF-kB is held inactive in the cytoplasm by I-kB, un ...
Click To View Pathway Activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA
G-protein coupled receptors
Click To View Pathway Activation of Csk by cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase Inhibits Signaling through the T Cell Receptor
Interaction of T cell receptor with specific antigen in the context of MHC II activates a signal transduction pathway that leads to T cell activation. In the T cell receptor signaling pathway, the src family kinases Lck and Fyn are activated to phos ...
Click To View Pathway Activation of PKC through G protein coupled receptor
G-protein coupled receptors
Click To View Pathway Adaptor Proteins and Signal Transduction in T-cells
Activation of the Engagement of the TCR by peptide/MHC complexes results in the activation of a number of protein-tyrosine kinases, including members of the src family, LCK and FYN-T, and syk family, ZAP-70 and SYK. Activated protein-tyrosine kinases ...
Click To View Pathway Agrin in Postsynaptic Differentiation
The heparan sulphate proteoglycan agrin is well known as the key assembly factor of postsynaptic differentiation at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), but recent data suggest it also plays a direct role in the organization of the cytoskeleton in the s ...
Click To View Pathway Ahr Signal Transduction Pathway
The Ah receptor, bHLH/PAS transcription factor, upon binding of an agonist such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin translocates into the nucleus and heterodimerizes with the transcription factor ARNT. The Ahreceptor/ARNT heterodimer binds to diox ...
Click To View Pathway ALK in cardiac myocytes
Heart formation is cued by a combination of positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Inhibitory signals that block heart formation in anterior paraxial mesoderm include Wnt family members expressed in dorsal neural tube and anti-BMPs ...
Click To View Pathway Angiotensin II mediated activation of JNK Pathway via Pyk2 dependent signaling
Ang II binding to AT1-R triggers the activation of Ca2+ signaling and PKC. The signal is then transmitted to the Pyk2 and further to the small G protein Rac1 but not Cdc42, although the direct activation of Rac1 by Pyk2 is not proved in this study. ...
Click To View Pathway Annexin A2 in Cell Signaling
Annexins are family of Ca2+-regulated proteins with unique architecture that can bind to membranes, phospholipids, lipids or cellular proteins. Annexins interact reversibly with cellular membranes and link membrane functions to Ca2+ signaling. Annexi ...
Click To View Pathway Anthrax Toxin Mechanism of Action
One of the key causes of anthrax virulence is the production of three specific factors by the gram-positive spore forming bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Even with successful antibiotic treatment, anthrax toxins can remain in the circulation and cause ...
Click To View Pathway Association of Signaling Intermediates With Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger NHE1
The plasma membrane sodium-hydrogen exchanger NHE1 has been described to function in the regulation of intracellular pH and cell volume by controlling the influx of extracellular Na+ and intracellular H+ ions; to associate with the actin-binding prot ...
Click To View Pathway ATM Signaling Pathway
The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM) encodes a protein kinase that acts as a tumor suppressor. ATM activation by ionizing radiation damage to DNA stimulates DNA repair and blocks progression through the cell cycle. Mutation of the ATM gene ca ...
Click To View Pathway Attenuation of GPCR Signaling
The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family transduces extracellular signals across the plasma membrane, activating cellular responses through a variety of second messenger cascades (see PKA and PKC signaling pathways). These receptors provide rapid ...
Click To View Pathway B Cell Survival Pathway
Physical interactions between intergrin alpha4beta1 heterodimer expressed on B cells and counter receptors on stroma cells are key mediators of the survival of normal and malignant B cells. Recent data indicate that integrin stimulation increases FBI ...
Click To View Pathway Basic mechanism of action of PPARa, PPARb(d) and PPARg and effects on gene expression
Similar to other nuclear hormone receptores, PPAR acts as a ligand activated transcription factor. Upon binding fatty acids or hypolipidemic drugs, PPARa interacts with RXR and regulates the expression of target genes. These genes are involved in the ...
Click To View Pathway BCR Signaling Pathway
Significant progress has been made towards delineation of the intrinsic molecular processes that regulate B lymphocyte immune function. Recent observations have provided a clearer picture of the interactive signaling pathways that emanate from the ma ...
Click To View Pathway Bioactive Peptide Induced Signaling Pathway
Many different peptides act as signaling molecules, including the proinflammatory peptide bradykinin, the protease enzyme thrombin, and the blood pressure regulating peptide angiotensin. While these three proteins are distinct in their sequence and ...
Click To View Pathway Bone Remodelling
Bone density and structure is maintained through a balance of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts. The combination of simultaneous resorption and deposition creates continual remodeling of bone while excess osteoclast a ...
Click To View Pathway Ca++/ Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Activation
The calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs) are involved in a large number of cellular responses induced by hormones, neurotransmitters and other signalling. Elevation of calcium functions as a major second messenger, where the intracellular co ...
Click To View Pathway Cadmium induces DNA synthesis and proliferation in macrophages
Exposure to divalent cadmium ions (Cd2+) is a known cancer risk factor, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for the inappropriate induction of cellular proliferation by cadmium are still being figured out. One cellular model used to study this ...
Click To View Pathway Calcium Signaling by HBx of Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis B is a small DNA virus that contains only 4 open reading frames in its genome. Three of these ORFs have been identified as the envelope, capsid and polymerase genes, while the function of the fourth has remained unknown until recently. Th ...
Click To View Pathway cAMP-Mediated Inhibition of Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger NHE3
Sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factors NHERF-1 and NHERF-2 are structurally related protein adapters that are highly expressed in epithelial tissues. NHERF proteins contain two tandem PDZ domains and a C-terminus that binds members of the ERM ( ...
Click To View Pathway CARM1 and Regulation of the Estrogen Receptor
Several forms of post-translational modification regulate protein activities. Recently, protein methylation by CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1) has been observed to play a key role in transcriptional regulation. CARM1 ass ...
Click To View Pathway CASK Protein Interactions
Mammalian CASK (Lin-2) is evolutionary conservative adaptor protein of the plasma membrane. The diverse molecular interactions of CASK support the idea that it functions as a scaffold through association with different proteins. Experimental data ind ...
Click To View Pathway Caveolin Based Estrogen Signalling
Definition of the classic estrogen-signaling pathway is highlighted by the fact that, in many instances, another signaling pathway(s) involving cytoplasmic proteins, growth factors and/or membrane-initiated responses contributed to estrogen action. ...
Click To View Pathway Caveolin-1 Transcription and Signaling
Caveolins are a family of 21-25-kD integral membrane proteins that are involved in cell growth, division, adhesion and hormonal response. Three main functions have been identified for caveolins: they are the major structural components of the caveola ...
Click To View Pathway CBL mediated ligand-induced downregulation of EGF receptors
As with many cell-surface receptors, activation of the EGF receptor can result in receptor internalization through receptor-mediated endocytosis, desensitizing further receptor signaling. This process requires clathrin and occurs in clathrin-coated ...
Click To View Pathway CD155-Assisted Signal Transduction
The poliovirus receptor CD155 is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues and is localized in cell-matrix adhesions and cell-cell junctions. CD155 is an immunoglobulin-like molecule with three immunoglobulin-like domains (V-C2-C2), a single transmembr ...
Click To View Pathway CD44 Signaling Pathway
The CD44 transmembrane cell adhesion protein found in a wide range of cells is the receptor for extracellular hyaluronate and provides the main interaction of some cells with the extracellular matrix. In addition to adhering to the extracellular mat ...
Click To View Pathway CD44-Mediated Signaling
CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein, integral to plasma membrane that participates in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration, lymphocyte activation, hematopoiesis, and tumor metastasis. CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronan (HA) and binds ot ...
Click To View Pathway Cell to Cell Adhesion Signaling
Interactions between cells responsible for cell to cell adhesion also can communicate signals into the cellular interior, often involving interactions with cytoskeletal elements to produce changes in cell motility, migration, proliferation and shape. ...
Click To View Pathway Ceramide Signaling Pathway
Over 1,000 papers and reviews have been written about the role of ceramide in the production of programmed cell death or apoptosis. Ceramide is a sphingosine-based lipid-signaling molecule involved in the regulation of cellular differentiation, prol ...
Click To View Pathway Chaperone - Raf Molecular Interactions
Raf-1 (MAP kinase kinase kinase) is a protein serine/threonine kinase with receptor signaling and transferase activity. Raf-1 plays an important role in apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular signaling cascades and protein phosphorylation. Raf- ...
Click To View Pathway Chaperones modulate interferon Signaling Pathway
Signaling by interferon-gamma stimulates anti-viral responses and tumor suppression through the heterodimeric interferon-gamma receptor. Signaling is initiated by binding of interferon-gamma to its receptor, activating the receptor-associated JAK2 t ...
Click To View Pathway Control of of p53 Subcellular Localization
p53 undergoes nuclear accumulation in response to DNA damage and other stresses, and mediates cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence. The mechanism leading to p53 activation involves phosphorylation and acetylation of p53 and changes in its subc ...
Click To View Pathway Control of skeletal myogenesis by HDAC & calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)
The differentiation of muscle cells is transcriptionally regulated, in part by the myocyte enhancer factor-2, MEF2. During myogenesis MEF2 binds to MyoD and other basic helix-loop-helix factors to activate transcription of genes involved in muscle ce ...
Click To View Pathway Corticosteroids and cardioprotection
Myocardial infarction damages heart tissue both during the initial ischemia and the subsequent reperfusion of tissues with oxygen. Corticosteroids can protect cardiac tissue from damage following a heart attack, but the mechanisms by which corticoste ...
Click To View Pathway CXCR4 Signaling Pathway
CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor in the GPCR gene family, and is expressed by cells in the immune system and the central nervous system. In response to binding its ligand SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1), CXCR4 triggers the migration and recruitme ...
Click To View Pathway Cyclins and Cell Cycle Regulation
The cell cycle is regulated by the interplay of many molecules. Key among these are the cyclins which are expressed and then degraded in a concerted fashion to drive the stages of the cell cycle. Cyclins combine with cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) t ...
Click To View Pathway Cysteine-Rich Protein61 Growth Suppression
Cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) is a member of a family of growth factor-inducible immediate-early genes. It regulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation and is involved in tumor growth. Cyr61 is a secreted protein that as ...
Click To View Pathway Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator And Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor Pathway
The defects in cAMP-regulated chloride channel CTFR are believed to be the major cause for cystic fibrosis. Regulation of CFTR protein by the surface receptor beta adrenergic receptor is mediated through the ezrin/radixin/moesin binding phosphoprotei ...
Click To View Pathway Cytokine Network
Several different cell types coordinate their efforts as part of the immune system, including B cells, T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. Each of these cell types has a distinct role in the immune system, and communicates w ...
Click To View Pathway Cytokines and Inflammatory Response
Inflammation is a protective response to infection by the immune system that requires communication between different classes of immune cells to coordinate their actions. Acute inflammation is an important part of the immune response, but chronic ina ...
Click To View Pathway D4-GDI Signaling Pathway
D4-GDI (GDP dissociation inhibitor) is a negative regulator of the ras related Rho Family of GTPases. Since the rho GTPases promote cytoskeletal and membrane changes associated with apoptotic cell death, the removal of the D4-GDI block through its cl ...
Click To View Pathway Degradation of the RAR and RXR by the proteasome
Once retinoids are bound by the RAR/RXR heterodimer they became transcriptional activated. As a consequence they are degraded by the proteasome. Phosphorylation in the activation domain one (AF1) and presence of the activation domain 2 (AF2) triger t ...
Click To View Pathway Effects of calcineurin in Keratinocyte Differentiation
The differentiation of keratinocytes constantly replenishes the upper layers of human skin we lose each day. One factor that contributes to terminal keratinocyte differentiation is increased levels of intracellular calcium. Adding calcium to the me ...
Click To View Pathway EGF Signaling Pathway
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) peptide induces cellular proliferation through the EGF receptor, which has a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain, a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular domain involved in EGF binding and receptor dimeriza ...
Click To View Pathway Eph Kinases and ephrins support platelet aggregation
Eph kinases are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases with an extracellular domain that binds their ligand, the ephrins, and an intracellular kinase domain. The ephrins are also expressed on the cell surface, so that interaction between Eph kinases a ...
Click To View Pathway Ephrins and Ephs: forward and reverse signalling
Ephrins are membrane-associated guidance molecules that play important roles in various biological processes such as cell migration, axon guidance, and synaptic plasticity. The A-subclass ephrins are tethered to the membrane by a GPI link, whereas th ...
Click To View Pathway EPO Signaling Pathway
Erythropoietin functions to increase the number of red blood cells. Thus, it has found utility as a drug for those needing to replenish erythrocytes for a number of reasons. The signaling mechanism includes multimerization of the receptor upon ligand ...
Click To View Pathway Erk and PI-3 Kinase Are Necessary for Collagen Binding in Corneal Epithelia
Activation of the MAPK kinase pathway has been identified as a mechanism that integrins use to regulate gene expression leading to cell shape changes during cell spreading or migration Epithelial cells respond to extracellular matrix (ECM) cause inte ...
Click To View Pathway Erk1/Erk2 Mapk Signaling pathway
The p44/42 MAP Kinase pathway consists of a protein kinase cascade linking growth and differentiation signals with transcription in the nucleus. Growth factor receptors and tyrosine kinases activate Ras which in turn activates c-Raf, MEK, and MAP kin ...
Click To View Pathway Erythropoietin mediated neuroprotection through NF-kB
Erythropoietin (Epo) is most commonly known as the cytokine secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production and is used as a drug for the treatment of anemias. Epo is also secreted in the brain in response to hypoxia, such as ische ...
Click To View Pathway Ethanol-Induced Signal Transduction
Alcoholism is a disease that affects about 14 million people in the USA. It is defined as uncontrolled consumption of alcohol and chronic exposure of neurons to ethanol, and the manifestations include tolerance, dependence, withdrawal and craving. Et ...
Click To View Pathway Eukaryotic protein translation
The scanning translation initiation model suggests that 40S ribosomal subunit preloaded with factors bind to the 5’ end of the mRNA near the cap. The 48S subunit moves along the mRNA until it finds the initiation triplet and in complex with tRNA and ...
Click To View Pathway FAS signaling pathway ( CD95 )
Receptors in the TNF receptor family are associated with the induction of apoptosis, as well as inflammatory signaling. The Fas receptor (CD95) mediates apoptotic signaling by Fas-ligand expressed on the surface of other cells. The Fas-FasL interacti ...
Click To View Pathway Fc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast Cells
The Fc Epsilon Receptor 1 signaling pathway in mast cells uses multiple core signal path to achieve its necessary ends. Through the BTK protein and PKC Mast cells are able to degranulate, through the PKC and MAPK paths the cells are able to alter cyt ...
Click To View Pathway Fibronectin Matrix Assembly
The assembly of native functional extracellular matrix (ECM) depends on the perfect coordination between extracellular processes and intracellular pathways. Fibronectin (FN) is an important ubiquitous extracellular ECM protein. It is secreted by the ...
Click To View Pathway fMLP induced chemokine gene expression in HMC-1 cells
Neutrophils respond to bacterial infection by releasing reactive oxygen species that kill bacteria and by expressing chemokines that attract other immune cells to the site of infection. The multisubunit enzyme NADPH oxidase expressed by neutrophils ...
Click To View Pathway GGA1 Adaptor Complex Pathway
In eukaryotic cells, vesicles transport proteins and lipids between membrane-bound organelles. The mechanism underlying assembly of the clathrin coat at specific sites involves a complex set of protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions that is n ...
Click To View Pathway Glucocorticoid Receptor-Hsp90 Heterocomplex
Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) have been isolated from hormone-free cells as large multiprotein complexes, containing dimers of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Hsp90 is associated with a variety of co-chaperones that are components of Hsp90-based mult ...
Click To View Pathway GM130 in Cell Signaling
The Golgi apparatus plays an important role in protein secretion and acts as platform for signaling processes, which are important for the diverse cellular functions. Golgi matrix protein GM130 is a scaffolding molecule that is involved in the coordi ...
Click To View Pathway G-Protein Signaling Through Tubby Proteins
The tubby gene product is expressed in the brain and has been implicated by mouse genetics in obesity and other disorders such as blindness. Structural analysis predicted that this gene acts as a transcription factor, binding to DNA to regulate gene ...
Click To View Pathway Growth Hormone Signaling Pathway
Growth hormone plays a major role in regulating growth during childhood and adolescence and also regulates metabolism. Defects in growth hormone signaling can result in dwarfism and decreases in growth hormone levels with age have been suggested to p ...
Click To View Pathway g-Secretase mediated ErbB4 Signaling Pathway
The HER4/erbB4 receptor tyrosi
Click To View Pathway How Progesterone Initiates Oocyte Membrane
Progesterone (Pg) binds to both intracellular iPR and plasma membrane- bound mPR. (Right Top) After binding to Pg, iPR is recruited to the membrane associated protein tyrosine kinase p60c- src, which induces activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. ...
Click To View Pathway Hrs-mediated downregulation of EGFR
Endocytosis of receptors and their transport to lysosomes results in receptor degradation by acid-dependent proteases, which can attenuate receptor signaling and may be envisioned as a tumor suppressor pathway. One example is the activated EGF recept ...
Click To View Pathway Human Cytomegalovirus and Map Kinase Pathways
To replicate in the host cell, viruses commandeer cellular signaling pathways. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a DNA virus with that is widespread in the population but usually causes disease only in immunocompromised individuals and is also a viral cause o ...
Click To View Pathway Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in the Cardiovascular System
Hypoxia (or low O2 levels) affects various pathologies. First, tissue ischemia, a variation in O2 tension caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation, can lead to endothelial cell changes. For example, long periods of ischemia result in endothelial changes, such ...
Click To View Pathway IFN alpha signaling pathway
Interferon alpha plays a role in viral infections. Signaling takes place through an IFN Recpetor complex consisting of two alpha chains (Type I receptor) complexed with Jak1 and Tyk2. These kinases phosphorylate Stat1 and Stat2 respectively.
Click To View Pathway IFN gamma signaling pathway
Interferon gamma is secreted from CD4+ Th1 cells, CD8 cells, gamma/delta T cells and activated NK cells. It plays a role in activating lymphocytes to enhance anti-microbial and anti-tumor effects. In addition it plays a role in regulating the prolife ...
Click To View Pathway IGF-1 Signaling Pathway
Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) provide a potent proliferative signaling system that stimulates growth in many different cell types and blocks apoptosis. In vivo IGF-1 acts as an intermediate of many growth hormone resp ...
Click To View Pathway IL 17 Signaling Pathway
Inflammation is a complex response involving many different cells and signaling molecules, including the secretion of the cytokine IL-17 by activated T cells. IL-17 secretion is restricted to specific subsets of T cells but the receptor for IL-17 is ...
Click To View Pathway IL 18 Signaling Pathway
IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine similar in structure and mechanism of action to IL-1 beta. Formation of active IL-18 by macrophages requires cleavage of an inactive precursor by caspase-1 protease, also termed the IL-1 converting enzyme (ICE). O ...
Click To View Pathway IL 2 signaling pathway
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a potent cytokine that can lead to cellular activation and proliferation. IL-2 Receptors are found on activated B-Cells, LPS treated Monocytes, and many T cells. The receptor is formed from three chains alpha (CD25), beta (CD1 ...
Click To View Pathway IL 3 signaling pathway
Interleukin-3 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells through binding to its receptor. The receptor for IL-3 is a heterodimer with a ligand-specific alpha chain (70 kD, CD123) and a common beta chain (shared with IL-5 an ...
Click To View Pathway IL 4 signaling pathway
Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that can lead to development of Th2 cells. The 140 kD IL-4 Receptor (CD124) is found on many cell types, even those of non-hematopoietic origen. The receptor is formed from two chains: IL-4R(alpha) and the IL-2R gam ...
Click To View Pathway IL 5 Signaling Pathway
IL-5 is an inflammatory signaling molecule that primarily stimulates eosinophil proliferation, maturation and activation. Eosinophils are leukocytes involved in inflammatory responses that defend against parasites and cause some aspects of asthma, al ...
Click To View Pathway IL 6 signaling pathway
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that provokes a broad range of cellular and physiological responses. In addition to playing a role in inflammation and hematopoiesis, IL-6 is involved in other processes such as neuronal differentiation and bone los ...
Click To View Pathway IL-10 Anti-inflammatory Signaling Pathway
IL-10 is a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties, repressing the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 by activated macrophages. The IL-10 receptor is in the JAK/STAT class of receptors but activation of t ...
Click To View Pathway IL12 and Stat4 Dependent Signaling Pathway in Th1 Development
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) promotes cell-mediated immunity by inducing Th1 cell differentiation and activation of both T cells and NK cells. Dendritic cells and macrophages in peripheral tissues act as antigen presenting cells and secrete IL-12 as one c ...
Click To View Pathway IL-2 Receptor Beta Chain in T cell Activation
The IL-2 receptor is a key component of immune signaling and is required for the activation, proliferation, and survival of T cells. This receptor is composed of three polypeptide chains, the alpha, beta and gamma chains. The IL-2 receptor gamma ch ...
Click To View Pathway IL22 Soluble Receptor Signaling Pathway
IL-22 is an inflammatory cytokine related to IL-10 that is produced by T cells and that induces a response in cells through a heterodimeric cell surface receptor composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2C. One of the actions of IL-22 appears to be the inducti ...
Click To View Pathway IL-7 Signal Transduction
IL-7 is a key cytokine in the immune system, essential for normal development of B cells and T cells. Mice with the IL-7 receptor deleted lack B and T cells. Some humans with SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) also have mutation of the ...
Click To View Pathway Inactivation of Gsk3 by AKT causes accumulation of b-catenin in Alveolar Macrophages
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from XX bacteria induces a wide range of inflammatory responses, including the response of alveolar macrophages to bacteria in the lungs. CD14 and the Toll-like receptor TLR4 are activated by LPS, initiating a signaling casc ...
Click To View Pathway Influence of Ras and Rho proteins on G1 to S Transition
The cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase is a key regulatory point in the cell cycle. This transition is regulated by the checkpoint kinase cdk2 that activates the G1 to S transition when it is associated with cyclin E. Cdk2/Cyclin E causes the ...
Click To View Pathway Inhibition of Axon Regeneration
The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has a small intrinsic capacity to repair. One of the critical factors that inhibit the regeneration of axons is myelin. Three different myelin-associated proteins have been associated with inhibition of neur ...
Click To View Pathway Inhibition of Cellular Proliferation by Gleevec
The drug Gleevec (also known as imatinib mesylate or STI-571) was approved by the FDA in 2001 for the treatment of CML, chronic myeloid leukemia. While traditional cytotoxic cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy kill all dividi ...
Click To View Pathway Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by AMP Kinase
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway serves as a sensor of cellular energy status and is found in all eukaryotic cells. AMPK is the main regulator of the cellular response to lowered ATP levels. AMPK is activated by stimuli that increase the c ...
Click To View Pathway Insulin Signaling Pathway
The appropriate signaling through the insulin pathway is critical for the regulation of glucose levels and the avoidance of diabetes. Insulin forms a complex with the Insulin Receptor (IR) and b chains to form the active signaling complex. Through re ...
Click To View Pathway Insulin Stimulates Glucose Transport
A primary function of insulin is to facilitate the disposal of glucose into peripheral tissues. Acute activation of the glucose transport pathway in insulin target tissues, such as adipose and muscle, is the main method of achieving the disposal. T ...
Click To View Pathway Integrin Signaling Pathway
Integrins are cell surface receptors that interact with the extracellular matrix and mediate intracellular signals in response to the extracellular matrix including cellular shape, mobility, and progression through the cell cycle. Integrins do not th ...
Click To View Pathway Ion Channel and Phorbal Esters Signaling Pathway
Molecules transmitting signals into cells often act through receptors in the plasma membrane that stimulate production of second messengers. When activated by a plasma membrane receptor, the enzyme phospholipase C (PLCg) hydrolyzes the membrane lipid ...
Click To View Pathway Ion Channels and Their Functional Role in Vascular Endothelium
Endothelial cells (EC) form a multifunctional signal-transducing surface that performs different tasks dependent on its localization in the vessel tree. Arterial EC provide a pathway for delivery of oxygen from blood to tissue. They modulate the tone ...
Click To View Pathway Keratinocyte Differentiation
The epidermis, which provides a protective barrier that undergoes a constant renewal, is a multi-layered tissue with the proliferating cells located in the basal layer. As cells leave the basal layer the underog significant differentiation, biochemi ...
Click To View Pathway Lck and Fyn tyrosine kinases in initiation of TCR Activation
T cell activation is initiated by recognition of antigen by the T cell receptor (TCR) in the context of Class II MHC on an antigen-presenting cell. The T cell receptor contains multiple subunits and interacts with several factors to transduce antigen ...
Click To View Pathway LIN Transport Complex
The correct targeting of proteins in polarized compartments is critical for the cellular function. In neurons, the correct targeting of proteins to axons and dendrites is important for neurotransmission. Mammalian proteins Lin-2, Lin-7 and Lin-10 (al ...
Click To View Pathway Links between Pyk2 and Map Kinases
This diagram is a compilation of Pyk2 effort cascades. In specific cell types the receptor and effoectors will vary. Binding of a transmembrane receptor triggers the activation of Ca2+ signaling and PKC. The signal is then transmitted to Pyk2 and ...
Click To View Pathway Liprin Transport Complex
Human liprin alpha is a multidomain scaffolding protein that plays an important role in presynaptic differentiation and postsynaptic targeting of glutamate receptors. Liprin interacts with the neuron-specific kinesin motor Kif1A, functions as a Kif1A ...
Click To View Pathway Listeria-Induced Signal Transduction
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive food-borne facultative pathogen and a causative agent of listeriosis that leads to meningitis, abortion, and death in immunocompromised patients. A few hours after infection L. monocytogenes begins intracellu ...
Click To View Pathway Map Kinase Inactivation of SMRT Corepressor
Corepressors are coregulators that interact with transcriptional silencers in a variety of pathways such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Abnormal corepressor-silencer interactions have been implicated in a variety of human dise ...
Click To View Pathway MAPKinase Signaling Pathway
The ever evolving mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathways consist of four major groupings and numerous related proteins which constitute interrelated signal transduction cascades activated by stimuli such as growth factors, stress, cyt ...
Click To View Pathway mCalpain and friends in Cell motility
The mammalian calpain gene family currently contains 13 distinct large subunit products most of which complex with one of two smaller 30kDa subunits. ( An excellent introduction to the calpain family can be found on a web site created by Valery Thomp ...
Click To View Pathway Mechanism of Gene Regulation by Peroxisome Proliferators via PPARa(alpha)
The most recognized mechanism by which peroxisome proliferators regulated gene expresssion is through a PPAR/RXR heterodimeric complex binding to a peroxisome proliferator-response element (PPRE) (classical mechanism). However, there are the possibil ...
Click To View Pathway Meiotic Arrest in Oogenesis
Mammalian oogenesis is marked by a prolonged pause in meiosis II that can last many years for human oocytes. This meiotic arrest is not released to complete meiosis until after fertilization, at which time the second polar body is released, and the ...
Click To View Pathway Melanocyte Development and Pigmentation Pathway
Studies with homozygous knockout mice have suggested that stem cell factor (SCF or KITLG), c-Kit, microphthalmia (Mitf), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) genes regulates melanocytic development. The SCF activation of Kit receptor leads to Mitf phosp ...
Click To View Pathway Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Signalling and Cell Cycle Progression
Many human cancers require the production of soluble growth factors for tumour initiation, promotion and survival. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine, is important for, and directly contributes to, normal cell division as wel ...
Click To View Pathway Modulation of PKC Activity by RACK1-Plectin Interactions
Plectin and its isoforms are versatile cytoskeletal linker proteins of very large size (>500 kDa) that are expressed in a wide variety of mammalian tissues and cells. The main function of plectin is the organization of actins, microtubules and interm ...
Click To View Pathway Msp/Ron Receptor Signaling Pathway
MSP, macrophage-stimulating protein, acts through the transmembrane receptor kinase RON (Stk in mice) to play a role in inflammation and the response to tissue injury. MSP is secreted by the liver into the blood as pro-MSP, an inactive precursor form ...
Click To View Pathway mTOR Signaling Pathway
mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) appears to play a central role in signaling caused by nutrients and mitogens such as growth factors to regulate translation. The drug rapamycin acts on mammalian cells through the mTOR protein kinase, also known ...
Click To View Pathway Multiple antiapoptotic pathways from IGF-1R signaling lead to BAD phosphorylation
IGF-1R, the type 1 receptor for insulin-like growth factor, mediates cell survival and growth in response to its ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2. This tyrosine kinase receptor is widely expressed in many cell types and is a key mediator of growth. Overexpr ...
Click To View Pathway Nerve growth factor pathway (NGF)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of a family of neurotrophins that induce the survival and proliferation of neurons. In cell culture NGF induces the formation of neurite projections and in vivo may stimulate the innervation of tissues. NGF plays a ...
Click To View Pathway Netrin Signaling in Axon Guidance
During embryonic and postnatal development of the nervous system, neuronal precursor cells have to migrate to their final destinations and axons have to navigate to the correct targets to establish normal connectivity. Neuronal migration and axon pat ...
Click To View Pathway Netrin-Neogenin Signaling
Netrin and its receptor neogenin are regulators of axonal guidance in the nervous system, one of the early steps in the development of the nervous system. Little is known about their function outside of the nervous system. Recent reports indicate add ...
Click To View Pathway Neuregulin Receptor Signaling
Synaptic activity, such as neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic depolarization, is a main driving force that directs synaptic development throughout the nervous system. The molecular mechanisms of conversion of synaptic activity into structural ...
Click To View Pathway Neuropeptides VIP and PACAP inhibit the apoptosis of activated T cells
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the structurally related pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), two neuropeptides present in the lymphoid microenvironment, elicit a broad spectrum of biological functions, including the mo ...
Click To View Pathway Neuroregulin receptor degredation protein-1 Controls ErbB3 receptor recycling
The neuregulins comprise a subfamily of at least four epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors that influence a variety of cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, and fate. The most thoroughly examined ...
Click To View Pathway NFAT and Hypertrophy of the heart (Transcription in the broken heart)
Hypertrophy associated with both hypertension and obstruction to ventricular outflow leads to pathologic cardiac growth and it is associated with increase morbidity and mortality. Symptomatic ventricular disease takes a growing toll on the health of ...
Click To View Pathway NFkB activation by Nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae
The role of Hemophilus influenzae in ear infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease includes the induction of an inflammatory response through activation of the transcription factor NF-kB. In addition to activation of inflammatory cytokine ...
Click To View Pathway NF-kB activation in T-cells
The transcription factor NF-kappa B has been implicated in the mitogen-induced expression of several genes that are critical for the immunologic function of T cells such as those encoding IL-2 and the IL- 2R alpha chain(IL-2R alpha). NF-kappa B is i ...
Click To View Pathway NF-kB Signaling Pathway
Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates expression of a large number of genes that are critical for the regulation of apoptosis, viral replication, tumorigenesis, inflammation, and various autoimmune diseases. The a ...
Click To View Pathway Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway
Glutamatergic-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production occurs via the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95)-neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) ternary complex. The increased intracellular Ca2+ stimulates the interact ...
Click To View Pathway Nitrogen-depedent regulation of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in TOR pathway
Many key signaling molecules are conserved from yeast to man. mTOR is a protein kinase involved in nutrient and growth factor signaling in humans that has a yeast homolog with a similar role, TOR1. Like its human counterpart, yeast TOR1 is also inh ...
Click To View Pathway NO2-dependent IL 12 Pathway in NK cells
Macrophages and NK cells help provide innate immunity against infection by intracellular parasites and communicate with each other to regulate this process. When stimulated, macrophages secrete the cytokine IL-12 that is essential for activation of ...
Click To View Pathway Nogo-A Signal Transduction Pathway and Axon Regeneration
Injured CNS fibre tracts react to the lesion with a short-lasting repair response: they produce sprouts from the cut ends or as collaterals, and the respective cell bodies upregulate growth proteins, such as GAP-43. Sprouting turns into long-distance ...
Click To View Pathway Nuclear receptors coordinate the activities of chromatin remodeling complexes and coactivators to facilitate initiation of transcription in carcinoma cells
RXR and RAR are nuclear receptors that bind either all trans retinoic (tRA) or 9cis retinoic acid (9cisRA). In the absence of ligand corepressors with histone deacetylase activity are bound to the RAR/RXR hetrodimer and suppress transcription. Once t ...
Click To View Pathway Nuclear Receptors in Lipid Metabolism and Toxicity
Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that are activated upon binding to its ligands. Initially, they had been classified as classic endocrine nuclear hormone receptors and orphan receptors. However, further studies have led to the identifica ...
Click To View Pathway Opiate-Induced Signal Transduction
The mu-opioid receptor is expressed by neurons of the central nervous system and belongs to the superfamily of seven-trans-membrane domain receptors that work together with G-proteins. The binding of different agonist drugs to the mu-receptor activat ...
Click To View Pathway OX40 Signaling Pathway
Two key features of the immune system are the clonal expansion of B cells and T cells in response to antigens, and the potentiation of future immune responses by long-lived memory cells. CD4 expressing T cells require costimulatory signals along wit ...
Click To View Pathway Oxidative Stress Induced Gene Expression Via Nrf2
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage biological macromolecules and are detrimental to cellular health. Electrophilic compounds, xenobiotics and antioxidants are sources of reactive oxygen species, creating oxidative stress that can harm cells. ...
Click To View Pathway p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway
p38 MAPKs are members of the MAPK family that are activated by a variety of environmental stresses and inflammatory cytokines. Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by members of small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, Cdc42). As with other ...
Click To View Pathway p53 Signaling Pathway
p53 is a transcription factor who's activity is regulated by phosphorylation. The function is p53 is to keep the cell from progressing through the cell cycle if there is damage to DNA present. It may do this in multiple ways from holding the cell at ...
Click To View Pathway PALS Membrane Complexes
In polarized cells, the correct targeting of proteins is critical for their function. Differentiated plasma membrane compartments are present in epithelial and neuron cells. Epithelia are polarized into apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, ...
Click To View Pathway PDGF Signaling Pathway
Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) plays a critical role in cellular proliferation and development. The biologically active form is a dimer formed from the A and B chains. PDGF is active to a differing degree depending on which dimer is formed (AA ...
Click To View Pathway PECAM-1 as a Scaffold for Signaling and Adaptor Molecule
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is a 130-kD member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily that is expressed on the surface of circulating platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and selected T cell subsets. It is also a major const ...
Click To View Pathway Pelp1 Modulation of Estrogen Receptor Activity
Proline-,glutamic acid-,leucine-rich protein 1 (Pelp1 also known as:modulator of nongenomic activity of estrogen or MNAR) is a recently discovered transmitter of estrogen signals. The receptors for estrogen (ER), progestin (PR), androgen (AR) and ot ...
Click To View Pathway Pertussis toxin-insensitive CCR5 Signaling in Macrophage
The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in macrophages are activated by their peptide ligands and also by the HIV envelope protein GP120 during HIV infection. One mechanism of signaling by these GPCRs is through activation of Gi signaling. These che ...
Click To View Pathway Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis Pathway
The main components of biological membranes are phosphoglyceride lipids composed of a glycerol unit esterified to two fatty acids and a polar alcohol group. The properties of phospholipids give lipid bilayer membranes their self-organizing structure. ...
Click To View Pathway Phosphoinositides and their downstream targets.
Nine currently identified phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-K) constitute a subfamily of lipid kinases that catalyze the addition of a phosphate molecule on the 3-position of the inositol ring of phosphoinositides. Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), the ...
Click To View Pathway Phospholipase C d1 in phospholipid associated cell signaling
Phospholipase C (PLC) d1 is a member of the PLC family that produces two second messengers, diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) by hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). DAG in combination ...
Click To View Pathway Phospholipase C Signaling Pathway
Phospholipase C comes in multiple forms and plays a key role in the signal transduction process for many receptors. Its main function is to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositoldiphosphate into diacylglycerol (DG) and inositoltriphosphate (IP3). DG is neces ...
Click To View Pathway Phospholipase C-epsilon pathway
Proposed model for b2-AR- and prostanoid-receptor-mediated PLC and calcium signalling. Receptors coupling to Gs stimulate AC, resulting in elevated cAMP levels and activation of Epac1. Epac1 then catalyses GTP-loading on Rap2B, which leads to PLC-e ...
Click To View Pathway Phospholipids as signalling intermediaries
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an example of lipid messengers with both intracellular and extracellular functions. Intracellularly S1P regulates proliferation and survival; extracellularly S1P is a ligand for EDG1 (also known as S1P1). Activation ...
Click To View Pathway Phosphorylation of MEK1 by cdk5/p35 down regulates the MAP kinase pathway
Map kinases transduce responses to extracellular signals by a variety of routes, and communicate with other pathways through extensive crosstalk networks. A closely studied Map kinase cascade originates with tyrosine kinase activation, and activatio ...
Click To View Pathway PIKE Signaling
PIKE (phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer) is a brain-specific GTPase that binds to and enhances the kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PIKE-S is the shorter form of PIKE, which is localized in the nucleus. PIKE-S was initially identified i ...
Click To View Pathway Pix Factors Affect MAPK Kinase activity
Click To View Pathway PKC-catalyzed phosphorylation of inhibitory phosphoprotein of myosin phosphatase
The phosphorylation of myosin affects its role in smooth muscle contraction, platelet formation and possibly other processes. Phosphorylation by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) increases myosin activity and dephosphorylation by myosin phosphatase de ...
Click To View Pathway PPAR Gamma in Inflammation Control
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family. After activation by specific ligands, they regulate the transcription of genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose and energy homeostasi ...
Click To View Pathway Presenilin action in Notch and Wnt signaling
Presenilin-1 (PS1) is associated with gamma secretase activity that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) and is implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Presenilin-1 is also a component in gamma-secretase activity involved in signaling by the transmemb ...
Click To View Pathway Proteolysis and Signaling Pathway of Notch
Notch is a large cell-surface
Click To View Pathway PTEN dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene. Recombinant PTEN is capable of dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate[PI(3,4,5)P3], the product of phosphatidylinositol 3 -kinase. Many of the cancer-related mutations have been mapped to the phosph ...
Click To View Pathway Rac 1 cell motility signaling pathway
Rac-1 is a small G-protein in the Rho family that regulates cell motility in response to extracellular signals. Several changes in cytoskeletal structure and other aspects of cell structure are involved in cell motility. Rac-1 is activated by GEF f ...
Click To View Pathway RanBP2 Protein Interactions
The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a very large scaffolding protein and mosaic cyclophilin-related nucleoporin. RanBP2 is involved in the Ran-GTPase cycle and in integrating nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways with protein biogenesis, such as pro ...
Click To View Pathway Ras Signaling Pathway
Ras activates many signaling cascades. Here we illustrate some of the well-characterized cascades in a generic compilation of effector molecules. The effectors mediate Ras stimulation to a diverse set of cellular signals. Many of these signals are ...
Click To View Pathway Reelin Signaling Pathway
Reelin is an extracellular protein secreted by neurons. Reeler mice with a defective Reelin gene exhibit neuronal abnormalities in development. Mice that are heterozygous for the Reelin knockout have neuroanatomical and behavioral traits similar t ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation And Function Of ChREBP in Liver
Liver is the major site for carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis) and triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis). While insulin was long thought to be the major regulator of hepatic gene expression, emerging evidence show that nutrien ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of BAD phosphorylation
The function of the pro-apoptotic molecule BAD is regulated by phosphorylation of three sites (ser 112,136 and 155). Phosphorylation at these sites results in loss of the ability of BAD to heterodimerize with the survival proteins BCL-XL or BCL-2. Ph ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of ck1/cdk5 by type 1 glutamate receptors
Cdk5 is a cyclin dependent protein kinase involved in dopaminergic signaling in the neostriatal region of the brain. The role of cdk5 in dopamine responses occurs through phosphorylation of DARPP-32. Caseine kinase 1 (CK1) also regulates DARPP-32 p ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of eIF2
Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in the control of translation by eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2). eIF-2 binds GTP and Met-tRNAi and transfers the Met-tRNA to the 40S subunit, to form the 43S preinitiation complex. Later in the ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of eIF4e and p70 S6 Kinase
eIF-4F and p70 S6 kinase play critical roles in translational regulation. eIF-4F is a complex whose functions include the recognition of the mRNA 5' cap structure (eIF-4E), delivery of an RNA helicase to the 5' region (eIF-4A), bridging of the mRNA a ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Interleukin-17
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory T cell cytokine presumably involved in physiological responses to infection, but also in immunopathology of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-17 induces the secretion of proinflammatory ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Insulin and IGF Signaling by IRS Proteins
Insulin and IGF1 recepors form hybrids that modulate the sensitivity and affinity for insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2). Insulin or IGF binding stimulates tyrosine autophosphorilation in the receptor beta subunits , which activa ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels
Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) family of ion channels are integral membrane proteins that are involved in diverse range of physiological functions, such as control of brain neuronal excitability, heart electrical activity, and glial buffering of po ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of MAP Kinase Pathways Through Dual Specificity Phosphatases
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important players in signal transduction pathways activated by a range of stimuli and mediate a number of physiological and pathological changes in cell function. There are three major subgroups in the MAPK ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of p27 Phosphorylation during Cell Cycle Progression
p27/Kip1 regulates the cell cycle by inhibiting the checkpoint kinase cdk2/cyclin E and blocking cell cycle progression through the G1-S transition. Cancer cells in some cases have reduced levels of p27, supporting the importance of p27 in cell cycl ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of PGC-1a
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1a) is a tissue-specific coactivator that enhances the activity of many nuclear receptors and coordinates transcriptional programs important for energy metabolism and energy ho ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Smooth Muscle Contraction
A network of signaling cascades, responding to incoming extracellular signals, regulates smooth muscle contraction. A key step in this regulation is the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the regulatory light chains of myosin. Myosin type II is maj ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Spermatogenesis by CREM
The transcriptional regulator CREM plays a key role in spermatogenesis, acting as a central transcription factor triggering a cascade of transcriptional activation of post-meiotic genes involved in this process such as calspermin and testis angiotens ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Steroidogenesis by Orphan NuclearReceptor SF-1
The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 plays a central role in the development and differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. SF-1 controls the expression of all the steroidogenic enzymes and cholesterol transporters required for steroidogenesis as well as ...
Click To View Pathway Repression of Pain Sensation by the Transcriptional Regulator DREAM
The molecular events that lead to the perception of pain are a key research field in medicine and drug discovery. The opioid receptors modulate pain signaling in response to endogenous peptide ligands and opiate drugs such as morphine. The kappa op ...
Click To View Pathway Reversal of Insulin Resistance by Leptin
The insulin resistance of type
Click To View Pathway Rgt1 in Yeast Glucose Induction Pathway
Yeast sense glucose in their environment and alter gene expression to match their nutritional needs. In a glucose-rich environment, glycolysis is activated, glucose transport is increased and gluconeogenesis repressed to use glucose to make energy. I ...
Click To View Pathway Rho cell motility signaling pathway
RhoA is a small G-protein in the Rho family that regulates cell morphology via actin cytoskeleton reorganization in response to extracellular signals. The majority of RhoA activations is due to disruption of intramolecular autoinhibitory interaction ...
Click To View Pathway Rho-Selective Guanine Exchange Factor AKAP13 Mediates Stress Fiber Formation
The A-kinase anchor protein 13 (AKAP13, also known as AKAP-LBC) is one of a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete ...
Click To View Pathway Role of BRCA1, BRCA2 and ATR in Cancer Susceptibility
BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified genetically as breast cancer susceptibility genes when a single copy of the gene is mutated and are involved in the cellular response to DNA damage, including blocking cell cycle progression and inducing DNA repair to ...
Click To View Pathway Role of EGF Receptor Transactivation by GPCRs in Cardiac Hypertrophy
One of responses to increased
Click To View Pathway Role of ERBB2 in Signal Transduction and Oncology
Her2 or ERBB2 belongs to a class of proteins having high homology with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ERBB1). It encodes a protein with the molecular weight of 185 KDa. Unlike other members of EGFR family, no ligand for Her2 has been fou ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Erk5 in Neuronal Survival
Axons extend significant distances to innervate target tissues. At the site of innervation, target tissues release neurotrophins including NGF, BDNF and neurotrophin-3 that stimulate the survival of the associated neuron. Local signaling by activat ...
Click To View Pathway Role of MAL in Rho-Mediated Activation of SRF
Serum response factor (SRF) is a transcription factor, which binds to a serum response element (SRE) associated with a variety of genes including (i)immediate early genes such as c-fos, fosB, junB, egr-1 and -2, (ii)neuronal genes such as nurr1 and n ...
Click To View Pathway Role of MEF2D in T-cell Apoptosis
Mef2 (Myocyte enhancer factor 2) transcription factors play a role in T-Cell Calcium Induced Apoptosis. Several factors regulate Mef2 transcription factors, including Map kinases and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes.

See also Control of s ...
Click To View Pathway Role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of apoptosis
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are essential for neuromuscular signaling and are also expressed in non-neuronal tissues, where their function is less clear. Although nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are primarily known for their action as ligand ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway
The motor defects of Parkinson's disease are related to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in specific brain regions. Examination of these neurons in diseased tissue has revealed the presence of Lewy bodies, dense aggregates that include the protein al ...
Click To View Pathway Role of PI3K subunit p85 in regulation of Actin Organization and Cell Migration
Migration of cells is involved in essential functions such as development, invasiveness of cancer cells, leukocyte movement toward chemotactic signals, and fibroblast response to injury. Cells can migrate in a specific direction in response to extrac ...
Click To View Pathway Role of ß-arrestins in the activation and targeting of MAP kinases
The binding of ß-arrestins to agonist-occupied GPCRs triggers the assembly of a MAP kinase activation complex using ß-arrestin as a scaffold, with subsequent activation of a ß-arrestin-bound pool of ERK1/2. The receptor—ß-arrestin—ERK complexes are l ...
Click To View Pathway Roles of Nuclear Receptors in the Regulation of Bile Acid Metabolism and Cholesterol Homeostasis
In the body, cholesterol balance results from an equilibrium between supplies (diet and cellular de novo synthesis), and losses (cellular use and elimination in feces, essentially as bile acids). Nuclear receptors LXR and FXR play the central roles ...
Click To View Pathway Roles of ß-arrestin-dependent Recruitment of Src Kinases in GPCR Signaling
The binding of ß-arrestins to agonist-occupied GPCRs coincides with the recruitment of Src family tyrosine kinases, including c-Src, Hck and c-Fgr (Src-TK), to the receptor—ß-arrestin complex. Several signaling events have been reported to involve ß- ...
Click To View Pathway Selective expression of chemokine receptors during T-cell polarization
Chemokine receptors expressed by T helper cells help recruit cells to specific locations based on their chemoattractant ligands. The polarization of T cells into Th1 and Th2 cells is associated with their expression of different subsets of chemokine ...
Click To View Pathway Semaphorin Signaling Pathway
The semaphorins are a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins that control axonal guidance. They have also been implicated in other biological processes, including the immune response. The human plexin gene family comprises at least nine ...
Click To View Pathway Signal Dependent Regulation of Myogenesis by Corepressor MITR
The differentiation of muscle cells is regulated by many factors, including the MyoD/MEF2 family of transcription factors. The MyoD/MEF2 dimer binds to promoters to activate genes involved in muscle cell differentiation. One of the factors that reg ...
Click To View Pathway Signal transduction through IL1R
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that signals primarily through the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1). The activities of IL-1 include induction of fever, expression of vascular adhesion molecules, and roles in arthritis and septic sho ...
Click To View Pathway Signaling Network Regulating Bone Morphogenesis
Bone formation occurs through the multistep process of endochondral ossification in which a cartilage template is converted into bone. During cartilage template development chondrocytes transit through maturational stages of proliferation, prehypertr ...
Click To View Pathway Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor
The hepatocyte growth factor receptor, also called c-Met, is activated by HGF and stimulates proliferation of hepatocytes and other cell types. Mutated forms of the HGF receptor are associated with oncogenesis and metastasis, making the HGF receptor ...
Click To View Pathway Signaling Pathway from G-Protein Families
G-aS-coupled receptors stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC), which synthesizes cAMP from ATP. In contrast Gai-coupled receptors inhibit AC and so reduce cAMP formation. The bg subunits from Gai and other G proteins are able to activate the MAP kinase pa ...
Click To View Pathway Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is regulated via AKT/mTOR pathway
Skeletal muscle atrophies with disuse while with increased use and increased load skeletal muscle exhibits hypertrophy, with an increase in the size of existing muscle fibers. One signaling pathway involved in regulating skeletal muscle atrophy and ...
Click To View Pathway Smad7-Mediated Protein Phosphatase Complex
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) superfamily members participate in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Defects in TGF beta signaling have been characterized in cancer, autoimmune diseases, and vascular disord ...
Click To View Pathway Snf1 in Yeast Glucose Repression/Derepression
The Snf1 protein kinase is a central component of the signalling pathway for glucose repression in yeast. On removal of glucose, gene repression is relieved via a mechanism that requires the pophorylation of Mig1 protein repressor by Snf1 protein kin ...
Click To View Pathway SODD/TNFR1 Signaling Pathway
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily contains several members with homologous cytoplasmic domains known as death domains (DD). The intracellular DD are important in initiating apoptosis and other signaling pathways following ligand bi ...
Click To View Pathway Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) Pathway
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is one of
Click To View Pathway Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) Receptor Ptc1 Regulates cell cycle
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted protein identified genetically as an important developmental factor. Shh provides a morphogenic signal in the developing CNS, organizing the spatial patterning of cells in the midbrain and inducing proliferation of ...
Click To View Pathway Sprouty regulation of tyrosine kinase signals
Four different members of the Sprouty protein family block the cellular proliferation and differentiation induced by several different growth factors, including EGF and FGF. One mechanism by which Sprouty proteins inhibit signaling is through bindin ...
Click To View Pathway ß-arrestins in GPCR Desensitization
Role of ß-arrestins in the desensitization, sequestration and intracellular trafficking of GPCRs. Homologous desensitization of GPCRs (1) results from the binding of ß-arrestins (ß-arr) to agonist -occupied receptors following phosphorylation of the ...
Click To View Pathway Stat3 Signaling Pathway
STATs, Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription, are transcription factors that are phosphorylated by JAK kinases in response to cytokine activation to then dimerize and move into the nucleus to activate transcription of cytokine-responsive ...
Click To View Pathway Stimulation of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling by Nitrous Oxide
Neurotransmitters are stored and released from synaptic vesicles. The store of neurotransmitter and vesicles would be rapidly depleted from neurons if not for mechanisms to reuptake neurotransmitters after their release and recycle vesicles. The re ...
Click To View Pathway TGF beta signaling pathway
TGF-beta regulates growth and proliferation of cells, blocking growth of many cell types. The TGF-beta receptor includes type 1 and type 2 subunits that are serine-threonine kinases and that signal through the SMAD family of transcriptional regulator ...
Click To View Pathway The 4-1BB-dependent immune response
The activation of T cells requires a co-stimulatory signal with T cell receptor activation, provided in many cases by activation of CD28 in resting T cells. 4-1BB (CD137) is a member of the TNF receptor gene family that provides another T cell co-st ...
Click To View Pathway The Co-Stimulatory Signal During T-cell Activation
For a T cell to be activated by a specific antigen, the T cell receptor must recognize complexes of MHCI with the antigen on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. T cells and the T cell receptor complex do not respond to antigen in solution, but ...
Click To View Pathway The Liver X Receptor as a Key Regulator of Cholesterol and Lipid Metabolism
The liver X receptors alpha and beta (LXR alpha and LXR beta) are members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins that are critical for the control of lipid homeostasis in vertebrates. LXRs serve as cholesterol sensors that regulate the expression ...
Click To View Pathway The Nuclear Pregnane X Receptor as a Generalized Sensor of Hydrophobic Toxins
The nuclear pregnane X receptor/ steroid and xenobiotic receptor (PXR/ SXR) is an important component of the body’s adaptive defense mechanism against toxic substances. PXR serves as a generalized xenobiotic, steroid, and bile acid sensor. It is acti ...
Click To View Pathway The Role Caveolin-1 in Tumour-cell Invasion
During metastasis, changes in the tissue microenvironment allow cancer cells to escape the tumour and disseminate. Epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) overexpression and downregulation of E-cadherin, disrupt cell–cell interactions. These proces ...
Click To View Pathway The Role of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) in Regulation of Bile Acid Homeostasis
Bile acids are essential for the solubilization and transport of dietary lipids and are the major products of cholesterol catabolism. Bile acids are ligands for the nuclear receptor FXR and regulate expression of genes whose products are critically i ...
Click To View Pathway The Role of Slit-Robo Pathway in Axon Guidance
Extending axons in the developing nervous system are guided in part by repulsive cues. Secreted Slit proteins have an evolutionarily conserved role in axon guidance as repulsive ligands for Robo receptors. In addition to acting as a chemorepellant fo ...
Click To View Pathway The Role of the Cxcr4 Chemokine Receptor and pVHL Tumor Suppressor in Metastasis
The extent of metastasis into other tissues is a key predictor of survival for some types of cancer. The invasion of normal tissues by cancer cells can involve stimulation of chemokine receptors expressed by cancer cells and their ligands expressed ...
Click To View Pathway Thrombin signaling and protease-activated receptors
Thrombin is an extracellular protease that is involved in the clotting of blood and inflammation through its action on platelets and endothelial cells in the vasculature and that plays a role in thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The protease act ...
Click To View Pathway TNF/Stress Related Signaling
TNF acts on several different signaling pathways through two cell surface receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2 (See TNFR1 and TNFR2 Signaling Pathways) to regulate apoptotic pathways, NF-kB activation of inflammation, and activate stress-activated protein kina ...
Click To View Pathway TNFR1 Signaling Pathway
TNFR1 (a.k.a. p55, CD120a) is the receptor for TNF(alpha) and also will bind TNF(beta). Upon binding TNF(alpha) a TNFR1+ cell is triggered to undergo apoptosis. This critical regulatory process is accomplished by activating the proteolytic caspase ca ...
Click To View Pathway TNFR2 Signaling Pathway
TNFR2 is the receptor for the 171 amino acid 19 kD TNF(beta) (a.k.a. lymphotoxin). TNF(beta) is produced by activated lymphocytes and can be cytotoxic to many tumor and other cells. In neutrophils, endothelial cells and osteoclasts TNF(beta) can lead ...
Click To View Pathway Toll-Like Receptor Pathway
The innate immune response responds in a general manner to factors present in invading pathogens. Bacterial factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin), bacterial lipoproteins, peptidoglycans and also CpG nucleic acids activate innate immuni ...
Click To View Pathway TPO Signaling Pathway
Thrombopoietin (TPO) binds to its receptor inducing aggregation and activation. TPO signals its growth regulating effects to the cell through several major pathways including MAPK (ERK and JNK), Protein Kinase C, and JAK/Stat.
Click To View Pathway Trafficking of MAPK Signaling Modules by Kinesin I
Kinesins are a family of motor proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport cargoes along microtubules. The human genome contains more than 40 kinesin genes. Kinesins can be connected to diverse cellular molecules via modular prote ...
Click To View Pathway Transcription factor CREB and its extracellular signals
The transcription factor CREB binds the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) and activates transcription in response to a variety of extracellular signals including neurotransmitters, hormones, membrane depolarization, and growth and neurotrophic factor ...
Click To View Pathway Transcription Regulation by Methyltransferase of CARM1
Several forms of post-translational modification regulate protein activities. Recently, protein methylation by CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1) has been observed to play a key role in transcriptional regulation. CARM1 ass ...
Click To View Pathway Transcriptional Activation by ARC Complex
The regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes is regulated by complex mechanisms including nuclear receptors and other transcription factors. The process involves both direct DNA binding of activators to their specific response elements and protein ...
Click To View Pathway Translin in Cell Signaling
Translin is a nucleic acid binding protein that has been implicated in regulating the targeting and translation of dendritic RNA. Numerous functions have been proposed for translin, including mitotic cell division, mRNA transport and stabilization, t ...
Click To View Pathway Trefoil Factors Initiate Mucosal Healing
Maintaining the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract despite the continual presence of microbial flora and injurious agents is essential. Epithelial repair requires restitution and regeneration. During restitution, epithelial cells spread and migr ...
Click To View Pathway Trka Receptor Signaling Pathway
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor that stimulates neuronal survival and growth through TrkA, a member of the trk family of tyrosine kinase receptors that also includes TrkB and TrkC. Some NGF responses are also mediated or modified b ...
Click To View Pathway TSP-1 Induced Apoptosis in Microvascular Endothelial Cell
As tissues grow they require angiogenesis to occur if they are to be supplied with blood vessels and survive. Factors that inhibit angiogenesis might act as cancer therapeutics by blocking vessel formation in tumors and starving cancer cells. Thrombo ...
Click To View Pathway VEGF, Hypoxia, and Angiogenesis
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in physiological blood vessel formation and pathological angiogenesis such as tumor growth and ischemic diseases. Hypoxia is a potent inducer of VEGF in vitro. The increase in secreted biolo ...
Click To View Pathway Visceral Fat Deposits and the Metabolic Syndrome
Obesity is associated with many adverse health effects, including an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. The combined condition of obesity, diabetes and heart disease is sometimes referred to as the metabolic syndrome. One of the factors ...
Click To View Pathway Visual Signal Transduction
The signal transduction cascade responsible for sensing light in vertebrates is one of the best studied signal transduction processes, and is initiated by rhodopsin in rod cells, a member of the G-protein coupled receptor gene family. Rhodopsin rema ...
Click To View Pathway WNT Signaling Pathway
Wnt family members are secreted glycoproteins who bind to cell surface receptors such as Frizzled. Wnt members can play a role in the expression of many genes by interacting with multiple disparate signaling pathways. Shown is the Wnt/beta-catenin pa ...
Click To View Pathway Wnt/LRP6 Signalling
Wnt glycoproteins play a role in diverse processes during embryonic patterning in metazoa through interaction with frizzled-type seven-transmembrane-domain receptors (Frz) to stabilize b-catenin. LDL-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), a Wnt co-recept ...
Click To View Pathway Y branching of actin filaments
Mammalian cell motility requires actin polymerization in the direction of movement to change membrane shape and extend cytoplasm into lamellipodia. The polymerization of actin to drive cell movement also involves branching of actin filaments into a ...
Top  Return To Index


Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Terms & Conditions | Sponsor Information