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Pathways  Cytokines/Chemokines

Cytokines/Chemokines  
Click To View Pathway Adaptive Immune Response to Cancer Cells
Tumours arise and progress within a microenvironment that is replete with healthy, non-transformed cells. Crosstalk between normal and neoplastic cells influence various stages of carcinogenesis. Cancer-bearing hosts can frequently mount innate and a ...
Click To View Pathway Ahr Signal Transduction Pathway
The Ah receptor, bHLH/PAS transcription factor, upon binding of an agonist such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin translocates into the nucleus and heterodimerizes with the transcription factor ARNT. The Ahreceptor/ARNT heterodimer binds to diox ...
Click To View Pathway Anthrax Toxin Mechanism of Action
One of the key causes of anthrax virulence is the production of three specific factors by the gram-positive spore forming bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Even with successful antibiotic treatment, anthrax toxins can remain in the circulation and cause ...
Click To View Pathway Caveolin Based Estrogen Signalling
Definition of the classic estrogen-signaling pathway is highlighted by the fact that, in many instances, another signaling pathway(s) involving cytoplasmic proteins, growth factors and/or membrane-initiated responses contributed to estrogen action. ...
Click To View Pathway CCR3 signaling in Eosinophils
Eosinophils are a key class of leukocytes involved in inflammatory responses, including allergic reactions in skin and airway. The eosinophil response in inflammation is absent in mice lacking CCR3, indicating the key role of this G protein coupled ...
Click To View Pathway CD40L Signaling Pathway
The CD40 receptor was first associated with expression in B cells and the role it plays through its ligand CD40L (CD154) in moderating T cell activation. Broader expression may indicate a broader role for CD40 and CD40L in immune function and disease ...
Click To View Pathway CXCR4 Signaling Pathway
CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor in the GPCR gene family, and is expressed by cells in the immune system and the central nervous system. In response to binding its ligand SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1), CXCR4 triggers the migration and recruitme ...
Click To View Pathway Cyclins and Cell Cycle Regulation
The cell cycle is regulated by the interplay of many molecules. Key among these are the cyclins which are expressed and then degraded in a concerted fashion to drive the stages of the cell cycle. Cyclins combine with cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) t ...
Click To View Pathway Cytokine Network
Several different cell types coordinate their efforts as part of the immune system, including B cells, T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. Each of these cell types has a distinct role in the immune system, and communicates w ...
Click To View Pathway Cytokines and Inflammatory Response
Inflammation is a protective response to infection by the immune system that requires communication between different classes of immune cells to coordinate their actions. Acute inflammation is an important part of the immune response, but chronic ina ...
Click To View Pathway De novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides
The pyrimidine ribonucleotides
Click To View Pathway Dendritic cells in regulating TH1 and TH2 Development
While T cells and B cells carry out the actions of antigen-specific immune responses, antigen-presenting cells called dendritic cells are required for this to happen. The name of dendritic cells is based on their shape, with activated dendritic cells ...
Click To View Pathway Dilated Cardiomyopathy:The Autoimmune Reactions That Slowly Destroys The Heart
Cardiomyopathies are defined as the diseases of heart muscle that are not secondary to coronary disease, hypertension, or congenital, valvar, or pericardial disease. As primary diseases of heart muscle, cardiomyopathies are less common causes of hear ...
Click To View Pathway EGF Signaling Pathway
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) peptide induces cellular proliferation through the EGF receptor, which has a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain, a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular domain involved in EGF binding and receptor dimeriza ...
Click To View Pathway EPO Signaling Pathway
Erythropoietin functions to increase the number of red blood cells. Thus, it has found utility as a drug for those needing to replenish erythrocytes for a number of reasons. The signaling mechanism includes multimerization of the receptor upon ligand ...
Click To View Pathway Erythropoietin mediated neuroprotection through NF-kB
Erythropoietin (Epo) is most commonly known as the cytokine secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production and is used as a drug for the treatment of anemias. Epo is also secreted in the brain in response to hypoxia, such as ische ...
Click To View Pathway fMLP induced chemokine gene expression in HMC-1 cells
Neutrophils respond to bacterial infection by releasing reactive oxygen species that kill bacteria and by expressing chemokines that attract other immune cells to the site of infection. The multisubunit enzyme NADPH oxidase expressed by neutrophils ...
Click To View Pathway GATA3 participate in activating the Th2 cytokine genes expression
CD4+ helper T cells differentiate into distinct subtypes, Th1 and Th2 cells. Th2 cells are involved in the response to extracellular helminthe parasites and allergic responses and secrete a distinct set of cytokines including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. ...
Click To View Pathway Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in the Cardiovascular System
Hypoxia (or low O2 levels) affects various pathologies. First, tissue ischemia, a variation in O2 tension caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation, can lead to endothelial cell changes. For example, long periods of ischemia result in endothelial changes, such ...
Click To View Pathway IFN alpha signaling pathway
Interferon alpha plays a role in viral infections. Signaling takes place through an IFN Recpetor complex consisting of two alpha chains (Type I receptor) complexed with Jak1 and Tyk2. These kinases phosphorylate Stat1 and Stat2 respectively.
Click To View Pathway IFN gamma signaling pathway
Interferon gamma is secreted from CD4+ Th1 cells, CD8 cells, gamma/delta T cells and activated NK cells. It plays a role in activating lymphocytes to enhance anti-microbial and anti-tumor effects. In addition it plays a role in regulating the prolife ...
Click To View Pathway IGF-1 Signaling Pathway
Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) provide a potent proliferative signaling system that stimulates growth in many different cell types and blocks apoptosis. In vivo IGF-1 acts as an intermediate of many growth hormone resp ...
Click To View Pathway IL 17 Signaling Pathway
Inflammation is a complex response involving many different cells and signaling molecules, including the secretion of the cytokine IL-17 by activated T cells. IL-17 secretion is restricted to specific subsets of T cells but the receptor for IL-17 is ...
Click To View Pathway IL 18 Signaling Pathway
IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine similar in structure and mechanism of action to IL-1 beta. Formation of active IL-18 by macrophages requires cleavage of an inactive precursor by caspase-1 protease, also termed the IL-1 converting enzyme (ICE). O ...
Click To View Pathway IL 2 signaling pathway
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a potent cytokine that can lead to cellular activation and proliferation. IL-2 Receptors are found on activated B-Cells, LPS treated Monocytes, and many T cells. The receptor is formed from three chains alpha (CD25), beta (CD1 ...
Click To View Pathway IL 3 signaling pathway
Interleukin-3 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells through binding to its receptor. The receptor for IL-3 is a heterodimer with a ligand-specific alpha chain (70 kD, CD123) and a common beta chain (shared with IL-5 an ...
Click To View Pathway IL 4 signaling pathway
Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that can lead to development of Th2 cells. The 140 kD IL-4 Receptor (CD124) is found on many cell types, even those of non-hematopoietic origen. The receptor is formed from two chains: IL-4R(alpha) and the IL-2R gam ...
Click To View Pathway IL 5 Signaling Pathway
IL-5 is an inflammatory signaling molecule that primarily stimulates eosinophil proliferation, maturation and activation. Eosinophils are leukocytes involved in inflammatory responses that defend against parasites and cause some aspects of asthma, al ...
Click To View Pathway IL 6 signaling pathway
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that provokes a broad range of cellular and physiological responses. In addition to playing a role in inflammation and hematopoiesis, IL-6 is involved in other processes such as neuronal differentiation and bone los ...
Click To View Pathway IL-10 Anti-inflammatory Signaling Pathway
IL-10 is a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties, repressing the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 by activated macrophages. The IL-10 receptor is in the JAK/STAT class of receptors but activation of t ...
Click To View Pathway IL12 and Stat4 Dependent Signaling Pathway in Th1 Development
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) promotes cell-mediated immunity by inducing Th1 cell differentiation and activation of both T cells and NK cells. Dendritic cells and macrophages in peripheral tissues act as antigen presenting cells and secrete IL-12 as one c ...
Click To View Pathway IL-2 Receptor Beta Chain in T cell Activation
The IL-2 receptor is a key component of immune signaling and is required for the activation, proliferation, and survival of T cells. This receptor is composed of three polypeptide chains, the alpha, beta and gamma chains. The IL-2 receptor gamma ch ...
Click To View Pathway IL22 Soluble Receptor Signaling Pathway
IL-22 is an inflammatory cytokine related to IL-10 that is produced by T cells and that induces a response in cells through a heterodimeric cell surface receptor composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2C. One of the actions of IL-22 appears to be the inducti ...
Click To View Pathway IL-7 Signal Transduction
IL-7 is a key cytokine in the immune system, essential for normal development of B cells and T cells. Mice with the IL-7 receptor deleted lack B and T cells. Some humans with SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) also have mutation of the ...
Click To View Pathway Insulin Signaling Pathway
The appropriate signaling through the insulin pathway is critical for the regulation of glucose levels and the avoidance of diabetes. Insulin forms a complex with the Insulin Receptor (IR) and b chains to form the active signaling complex. Through re ...
Click To View Pathway Nerve growth factor pathway (NGF)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of a family of neurotrophins that induce the survival and proliferation of neurons. In cell culture NGF induces the formation of neurite projections and in vivo may stimulate the innervation of tissues. NGF plays a ...
Click To View Pathway NO2-dependent IL 12 Pathway in NK cells
Macrophages and NK cells help provide innate immunity against infection by intracellular parasites and communicate with each other to regulate this process. When stimulated, macrophages secrete the cytokine IL-12 that is essential for activation of ...
Click To View Pathway PDGF Signaling Pathway
Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) plays a critical role in cellular proliferation and development. The biologically active form is a dimer formed from the A and B chains. PDGF is active to a differing degree depending on which dimer is formed (AA ...
Click To View Pathway PPAR Gamma in Inflammation Control
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family. After activation by specific ligands, they regulate the transcription of genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose and energy homeostasi ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of hematopoiesis by cytokines
The process of hematopoesis is regulated by various cytokines. The combination of cytokines stimulates the proliferation and/or differentiation of the various hematopoietic cell types. Bone marrow stromal cells are the major source of hematopoietic ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Interleukin-17
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory T cell cytokine presumably involved in physiological responses to infection, but also in immunopathology of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-17 induces the secretion of proinflammatory ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Insulin and IGF Signaling by IRS Proteins
Insulin and IGF1 recepors form hybrids that modulate the sensitivity and affinity for insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2). Insulin or IGF binding stimulates tyrosine autophosphorilation in the receptor beta subunits , which activa ...
Click To View Pathway Rho cell motility signaling pathway
RhoA is a small G-protein in the Rho family that regulates cell morphology via actin cytoskeleton reorganization in response to extracellular signals. The majority of RhoA activations is due to disruption of intramolecular autoinhibitory interaction ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Dendritic Cell in the Pathogenesis of Asthma
Asthma is a chronic disease associated with abnormal lung physiology, including reversible airway obstruction and bronchial hyperreactivity. Infiltration of activated eosinophils in the airways was considered to be central to the pathophysiology of a ...
Click To View Pathway Selective expression of chemokine receptors during T-cell polarization
Chemokine receptors expressed by T helper cells help recruit cells to specific locations based on their chemoattractant ligands. The polarization of T cells into Th1 and Th2 cells is associated with their expression of different subsets of chemokine ...
Click To View Pathway Signal transduction through IL1R
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that signals primarily through the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1). The activities of IL-1 include induction of fever, expression of vascular adhesion molecules, and roles in arthritis and septic sho ...
Click To View Pathway Signaling Pathway from G-Protein Families
G-aS-coupled receptors stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC), which synthesizes cAMP from ATP. In contrast Gai-coupled receptors inhibit AC and so reduce cAMP formation. The bg subunits from Gai and other G proteins are able to activate the MAP kinase pa ...
Click To View Pathway Stat3 Signaling Pathway
STATs, Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription, are transcription factors that are phosphorylated by JAK kinases in response to cytokine activation to then dimerize and move into the nucleus to activate transcription of cytokine-responsive ...
Click To View Pathway TGF beta signaling pathway
TGF-beta regulates growth and proliferation of cells, blocking growth of many cell types. The TGF-beta receptor includes type 1 and type 2 subunits that are serine-threonine kinases and that signal through the SMAD family of transcriptional regulator ...
Click To View Pathway The Role of Eosinophils in the Chemokine Network of Allergy
The inflammatory response associated with asthma is characterized by the recruitment of eosinophils from the bronchial microcirculation in response to the regulated local production of chemoattractant molecules . Although several chemical mediators a ...
Click To View Pathway TNF/Stress Related Signaling
TNF acts on several different signaling pathways through two cell surface receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2 (See TNFR1 and TNFR2 Signaling Pathways) to regulate apoptotic pathways, NF-kB activation of inflammation, and activate stress-activated protein kina ...
Click To View Pathway TNFR1 Signaling Pathway
TNFR1 (a.k.a. p55, CD120a) is the receptor for TNF(alpha) and also will bind TNF(beta). Upon binding TNF(alpha) a TNFR1+ cell is triggered to undergo apoptosis. This critical regulatory process is accomplished by activating the proteolytic caspase ca ...
Click To View Pathway TNFR2 Signaling Pathway
TNFR2 is the receptor for the 171 amino acid 19 kD TNF(beta) (a.k.a. lymphotoxin). TNF(beta) is produced by activated lymphocytes and can be cytotoxic to many tumor and other cells. In neutrophils, endothelial cells and osteoclasts TNF(beta) can lead ...
Click To View Pathway TPO Signaling Pathway
Thrombopoietin (TPO) binds to its receptor inducing aggregation and activation. TPO signals its growth regulating effects to the cell through several major pathways including MAPK (ERK and JNK), Protein Kinase C, and JAK/Stat.
Click To View Pathway Transcription Regulation by Methyltransferase of CARM1
Several forms of post-translational modification regulate protein activities. Recently, protein methylation by CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1) has been observed to play a key role in transcriptional regulation. CARM1 ass ...
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