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Pathways  Developmental Biology

Developmental Biology  
Click To View Pathway Activation of Mammalian Egg Development
Mammalian eggs are ovulated arrested at the second metaphase stage of meiosis (MII). The fertilizing sperm evokes intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ]i) oscillations that are essential for initiation of egg activation and embryonic development. It is believ ...
Click To View Pathway Agrin in Postsynaptic Differentiation
The heparan sulphate proteoglycan agrin is well known as the key assembly factor of postsynaptic differentiation at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), but recent data suggest it also plays a direct role in the organization of the cytoskeleton in the s ...
Click To View Pathway ALK in cardiac myocytes
Heart formation is cued by a combination of positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Inhibitory signals that block heart formation in anterior paraxial mesoderm include Wnt family members expressed in dorsal neural tube and anti-BMPs ...
Click To View Pathway Bone Remodelling
Bone density and structure is maintained through a balance of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts. The combination of simultaneous resorption and deposition creates continual remodeling of bone while excess osteoclast a ...
Click To View Pathway BRCA1-dependent Ub-ligase activity
BRCA1 is a breast and ovarian cancer tumor suppressor protein that associates with BARD1 to form a RING/RING heterodimer. The BRCA1/BARD1 RING complex functions as an ubiquitin (Ub) ligase with activity substantially greater than individual BRCA1 or ...
Click To View Pathway Circadian Rhythms
Organisms from flies to humans have daily circadian rhythms entrained with the 24-hour cycle of day and night that regulate many physiological systems. In mammals, there appears to be a master regulator of circadian rhythms in the hypothalamus, as we ...
Click To View Pathway Control of skeletal myogenesis by HDAC & calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)
The differentiation of muscle cells is transcriptionally regulated, in part by the myocyte enhancer factor-2, MEF2. During myogenesis MEF2 binds to MyoD and other basic helix-loop-helix factors to activate transcription of genes involved in muscle ce ...
Click To View Pathway CTCF: First Multivalent Nuclear Factor
CTCF is central to signaling pathways in immature B cells elicited by cross-linking the Ig BCR and stimulation with TGFß. Both stimuli result in induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. BCR ligation stimulates a transient induction of MYC that l ...
Click To View Pathway Effects of calcineurin in Keratinocyte Differentiation
The differentiation of keratinocytes constantly replenishes the upper layers of human skin we lose each day. One factor that contributes to terminal keratinocyte differentiation is increased levels of intracellular calcium. Adding calcium to the me ...
Click To View Pathway Function of SLRP in Bone: An Integrated View
SLRPs (Small leucine-rich proteoglycans) are extracellular molecules that bind to TGF-betas, collagens and other matrix molecules. In vitro, SLRPs were shown to regulate collagen fibrillogenesis, a process essential in development, tissue repair, and ...
Click To View Pathway g-Secretase mediated ErbB4 Signaling Pathway
The HER4/erbB4 receptor tyrosi
Click To View Pathway Hop Pathway in Cardiac Development
Homeodomain transcription factors comprise a large family of DNA binding factors that regulate transcription and development. Many homeodomain genes arranged in genomic clusters determine anterior-posterior patterning, while others determine the fat ...
Click To View Pathway How Progesterone Initiates Oocyte Membrane
Progesterone (Pg) binds to both intracellular iPR and plasma membrane- bound mPR. (Right Top) After binding to Pg, iPR is recruited to the membrane associated protein tyrosine kinase p60c- src, which induces activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. ...
Click To View Pathway Initiation of Ureteric Bud Development
Development of epithelial organs requires coordinated interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. The urinary collecting system originates from an epithelial protrusion, developing from the Wolffian duct or ureteric bud (UB), as a result ...
Click To View Pathway Keratinocyte Differentiation
The epidermis, which provides a protective barrier that undergoes a constant renewal, is a multi-layered tissue with the proliferating cells located in the basal layer. As cells leave the basal layer the underog significant differentiation, biochemi ...
Click To View Pathway Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development
Integration of pathways that regulate nucleokinesis during neuronal migration and a model of LIS1 mediating CLIP-170 interactions with the dynein/dynactin pathway. LIS1 can bind to MT bundles; however, phospho-LIS1 binding to MT bundles is mediated t ...
Click To View Pathway Melanocyte Development and Pigmentation Pathway
Studies with homozygous knockout mice have suggested that stem cell factor (SCF or KITLG), c-Kit, microphthalmia (Mitf), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) genes regulates melanocytic development. The SCF activation of Kit receptor leads to Mitf phosp ...
Click To View Pathway METS affect on Macrophage Differentiation
Terminal differentiation of cells is often accompanied by repression of cellular proliferation, suggesting that there is a mechanism by which these cellular functions are coordinated. Macrophage differentiation is one model system in which this occu ...
Click To View Pathway Molecular Control of Migrating Muscle Precursor Cells
The control of muscle precursor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation is a complex biological process. All steps are regulated by local signaling between embryonic structures. Skeletal muscle precursors for the limbs originate from the ep ...
Click To View Pathway Multi-step Regulation of Transcription by Pitx2
Many transcription factors play essential roles in normal development by determining the proliferation and differentiation of cells. The coordinated transcriptional control of proliferation in specific developmental cell types is crucial in multiple ...
Click To View Pathway Nedd8 Driven Cycle and COP9 Signalosome
The ubiquitin (Ub) system is the most important proteolytic machinery in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the regulation of essential cellular processes such as the cell cycle, signal transduction and antigen processing. In recent years the contro ...
Click To View Pathway Netrin Signaling in Axon Guidance
During embryonic and postnatal development of the nervous system, neuronal precursor cells have to migrate to their final destinations and axons have to navigate to the correct targets to establish normal connectivity. Neuronal migration and axon pat ...
Click To View Pathway Proteolysis and Signaling Pathway of Notch
Notch is a large cell-surface
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Spermatogenesis by CREM
The transcriptional regulator CREM plays a key role in spermatogenesis, acting as a central transcription factor triggering a cascade of transcriptional activation of post-meiotic genes involved in this process such as calspermin and testis angiotens ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Steroidogenesis by Orphan NuclearReceptor SF-1
The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 plays a central role in the development and differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. SF-1 controls the expression of all the steroidogenic enzymes and cholesterol transporters required for steroidogenesis as well as ...
Click To View Pathway Segmentation Clock
In most animal species, the anteroposterior body axis is generated by the formation of repeated structures called segments. In vertebrate segmentation, a specialized mesodermal structure called the somite gives rise to sceletal muscles, vertebrae, an ...
Click To View Pathway Sexual Differentiation of the Reproductive System
The mammalian female reproductive tract is an organ system that is composed of the oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina. The primary role of this organ system is reproduction, i.e. the continuation of the species. The femalereproductive tract organs a ...
Click To View Pathway Signal Dependent Regulation of Myogenesis by Corepressor MITR
The differentiation of muscle cells is regulated by many factors, including the MyoD/MEF2 family of transcription factors. The MyoD/MEF2 dimer binds to promoters to activate genes involved in muscle cell differentiation. One of the factors that reg ...
Click To View Pathway Signaling Network Regulating Bone Morphogenesis
Bone formation occurs through the multistep process of endochondral ossification in which a cartilage template is converted into bone. During cartilage template development chondrocytes transit through maturational stages of proliferation, prehypertr ...
Click To View Pathway Small Leucine-rich Proteoglycan (SLRP) molecules
The small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are a family of proteins that are present in extracellular matrix and that share in common multiple repeats of a leucine-rich structural motif, flanked by cysteine residues. These proteins appear to intera ...
Click To View Pathway Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) Pathway
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is one of
Click To View Pathway Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) Receptor Ptc1 Regulates cell cycle
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted protein identified genetically as an important developmental factor. Shh provides a morphogenic signal in the developing CNS, organizing the spatial patterning of cells in the midbrain and inducing proliferation of ...
Click To View Pathway The IGF-1 Receptor and Longevity
A demonstrated means to increase lifespan in a wide range of organisms is through the restriction of caloric intake. Reducing the consumption of calories increases the lifespan of many different organisms, including mice. Although caloric restricti ...
Click To View Pathway The PRC2 Complex Sets Long –term Gene Silencing Through Modification of Histone Tails
Packaging of DNA into chromatin allows the cell to store its genetic information efficiently and has an important role in regulating gene expression. Recent studies have revealed that chromatin structure can be altered by covalent modification of nuc ...
Click To View Pathway Vitamin C in the Brain
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) was first identified by virtue of the essential role it plays in collagen modification, preventing the nutritional deficiency scurvy. Vitamin C acts as a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that post-translationally modify col ...
Click To View Pathway WNT Signaling Pathway
Wnt family members are secreted glycoproteins who bind to cell surface receptors such as Frizzled. Wnt members can play a role in the expression of many genes by interacting with multiple disparate signaling pathways. Shown is the Wnt/beta-catenin pa ...
Click To View Pathway Wnt/LRP6 Signalling
Wnt glycoproteins play a role in diverse processes during embryonic patterning in metazoa through interaction with frizzled-type seven-transmembrane-domain receptors (Frz) to stabilize b-catenin. LDL-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), a Wnt co-recept ...
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