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Pathways  Immunology

Immunology  
Click To View Pathway Activation of Csk by cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase Inhibits Signaling through the T Cell Receptor
Interaction of T cell receptor with specific antigen in the context of MHC II activates a signal transduction pathway that leads to T cell activation. In the T cell receptor signaling pathway, the src family kinases Lck and Fyn are activated to phos ...
Click To View Pathway Adaptive Immune Response to Cancer Cells
Tumours arise and progress within a microenvironment that is replete with healthy, non-transformed cells. Crosstalk between normal and neoplastic cells influence various stages of carcinogenesis. Cancer-bearing hosts can frequently mount innate and a ...
Click To View Pathway Adaptor Proteins and Signal Transduction in T-cells
Activation of the Engagement of the TCR by peptide/MHC complexes results in the activation of a number of protein-tyrosine kinases, including members of the src family, LCK and FYN-T, and syk family, ZAP-70 and SYK. Activated protein-tyrosine kinases ...
Click To View Pathway Adhesion and Diapedesis of Granulocytes
Cell adhesion is a fundamental feature of multicellular organisms including their defense mechanisms. In the later case in mammals, leukocytes play central role. They bind bacteria, parasites, viruses, tumor cells etc. Furthermore, their interactions ...
Click To View Pathway Adhesion and Diapedesis of Lymphocytes
Cell adhesion is a fundamental feature of multicellular organisms including their defense mechanisms. In the later case in mammals, leukocytes play central role. They bind bacteria, parasites, viruses, tumor cells etc. Furthermore, their interactions ...
Click To View Pathway Adhesion Molecules on Lymphocyte
B cell and T cell lymphocytes interact with a variety of cells as part of their immune function, circulating and homing in on specific stimuli in tissues like inflammatory signals. The interaction of lymphocytes with other cell types like vascular en ...
Click To View Pathway Ahr Signal Transduction Pathway
The Ah receptor, bHLH/PAS transcription factor, upon binding of an agonist such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin translocates into the nucleus and heterodimerizes with the transcription factor ARNT. The Ahreceptor/ARNT heterodimer binds to diox ...
Click To View Pathway Alpha-synuclein and Parkin-mediated proteolysis in Parkinson's disease
The motor defects of Parkinson
Click To View Pathway Alternative Complement Pathway
The complement system of plasma proteins is an important part of the immune system that forms a cascade of factors that lyses foreign cells. There are two branches of the complement system, the classical pathway that is initiated by antibody-antigen ...
Click To View Pathway Anthrax Toxin Mechanism of Action
One of the key causes of anthrax virulence is the production of three specific factors by the gram-positive spore forming bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Even with successful antibiotic treatment, anthrax toxins can remain in the circulation and cause ...
Click To View Pathway Antigen Dependent B Cell Activation
A key part of the immune system is the production of immunoglobulins (antibodies) by B cells to bind and inactivate specific foreign antigens. The body produces B cells with a wide range of antigen specificities in the immunoglobulin B cell receptor, ...
Click To View Pathway Antigen Processing and Presentation
Invariant chain (Ii) associates with newly synthesized class II molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an interaction that has been shown to interfere with peptide binding to class II molecules. The class II-associated invariant chain peptide ( ...
Click To View Pathway B Cell Receptor Complex
B cells produce immunoglobulins (Ig, antibodies) that specifically bind antigen molecules. B cells first produce a membrane-bound form of immunoglobulin, the B cell receptor, as part of B cell differentiation. Each B cell expresses one immunoglobulin ...
Click To View Pathway B Cell Survival Pathway
Physical interactions between intergrin alpha4beta1 heterodimer expressed on B cells and counter receptors on stroma cells are key mediators of the survival of normal and malignant B cells. Recent data indicate that integrin stimulation increases FBI ...
Click To View Pathway B Lymphocyte Cell Surface Molecules
B cells must communicate with their environment to participate in the immune system as the source of antigen-specific immunoglobulins. Cell surface proteins on B cells receive signals from the exterior, adhere to other cells, and transmit signals to ...
Click To View Pathway Basophils - from Stem to blood
Click To View Pathway BCR Signaling Pathway
Significant progress has been made towards delineation of the intrinsic molecular processes that regulate B lymphocyte immune function. Recent observations have provided a clearer picture of the interactive signaling pathways that emanate from the ma ...
Click To View Pathway Bystander B Cell Activation
Expression of Fas-Ligand by T cells can induce apoptosis through interaction with Fas on the target cell. A target of Fas-mediated apoptosis is the B cell. B cells that are not activated by antigen, bystander B cells, can interact through CD40 with t ...
Click To View Pathway Cadmium induces DNA synthesis and proliferation in macrophages
Exposure to divalent cadmium ions (Cd2+) is a known cancer risk factor, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for the inappropriate induction of cellular proliferation by cadmium are still being figured out. One cellular model used to study this ...
Click To View Pathway CCR3 signaling in Eosinophils
Eosinophils are a key class of leukocytes involved in inflammatory responses, including allergic reactions in skin and airway. The eosinophil response in inflammation is absent in mice lacking CCR3, indicating the key role of this G protein coupled ...
Click To View Pathway CD40L Signaling Pathway
The CD40 receptor was first associated with expression in B cells and the role it plays through its ligand CD40L (CD154) in moderating T cell activation. Broader expression may indicate a broader role for CD40 and CD40L in immune function and disease ...
Click To View Pathway Cells and Molecules involved in local acute inflammatory response
Inflammation has several distinct components, including the localized response at the site of tissue injury or infection. Tissue injury stimulates the release of inflammatory signaling molecules such as bradykinin. Bacterial infection stimulates an ...
Click To View Pathway Classical Complement Pathway
The complement system is part of the defense against invading cells and is composed of about twenty different proteins found in the plasma. When activated, complement proteins form a pathway of proteolytic reactions that culminates in the lysis of fo ...
Click To View Pathway Complement Pathway
The complement pathway consists of a series of over thirty proteins in plasma that are part of the immune response. Activation of the complement system lyses bacterial cells, forms chemotactic peptides (C3a and C5a) attracting immune cells, and incr ...
Click To View Pathway CTL mediated immune response against target cells
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), also known as killer T cells, provide a cell-mediated response to specific foreign antigens associated with cells. CTLs only respond to foreign antigen when it is presented bound to the MHC-1 expressed on the surface o ...
Click To View Pathway CXCR4 Signaling Pathway
CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor in the GPCR gene family, and is expressed by cells in the immune system and the central nervous system. In response to binding its ligand SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1), CXCR4 triggers the migration and recruitme ...
Click To View Pathway Cytokine Network
Several different cell types coordinate their efforts as part of the immune system, including B cells, T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. Each of these cell types has a distinct role in the immune system, and communicates w ...
Click To View Pathway Dendritic cells in regulating TH1 and TH2 Development
While T cells and B cells carry out the actions of antigen-specific immune responses, antigen-presenting cells called dendritic cells are required for this to happen. The name of dendritic cells is based on their shape, with activated dendritic cells ...
Click To View Pathway EGF Signaling Pathway
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) peptide induces cellular proliferation through the EGF receptor, which has a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain, a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular domain involved in EGF binding and receptor dimeriza ...
Click To View Pathway Eosinophils - from Stem to blood
Click To View Pathway EPO Signaling Pathway
Erythropoietin functions to increase the number of red blood cells. Thus, it has found utility as a drug for those needing to replenish erythrocytes for a number of reasons. The signaling mechanism includes multimerization of the receptor upon ligand ...
Click To View Pathway Evasion of Innate Immunity by Protozoan Parasites
'Protozoan infections are a major global health problem, affectingover half a billion people world wide. Several of the diseases they induce (such as malaria, African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis) represent major causes of mortality and ...
Click To View Pathway FAS signaling pathway ( CD95 )
Receptors in the TNF receptor family are associated with the induction of apoptosis, as well as inflammatory signaling. The Fas receptor (CD95) mediates apoptotic signaling by Fas-ligand expressed on the surface of other cells. The Fas-FasL interacti ...
Click To View Pathway Fc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast Cells
The Fc Epsilon Receptor 1 signaling pathway in mast cells uses multiple core signal path to achieve its necessary ends. Through the BTK protein and PKC Mast cells are able to degranulate, through the PKC and MAPK paths the cells are able to alter cyt ...
Click To View Pathway fMLP induced chemokine gene expression in HMC-1 cells
Neutrophils respond to bacterial infection by releasing reactive oxygen species that kill bacteria and by expressing chemokines that attract other immune cells to the site of infection. The multisubunit enzyme NADPH oxidase expressed by neutrophils ...
Click To View Pathway GATA3 participate in activating the Th2 cytokine genes expression
CD4+ helper T cells differentiate into distinct subtypes, Th1 and Th2 cells. Th2 cells are involved in the response to extracellular helminthe parasites and allergic responses and secrete a distinct set of cytokines including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. ...
Click To View Pathway HIV Induced T Cell Apoptosis
HIV infection is associated with immunosuppression caused by a dramatic reduction in the helper T cell population. The loss of helper T cells may be caused by HIV-induced apoptosis of both infected and uninfected helper T cells. HIV uses the CCR5 che ...
Click To View Pathway Human Cytomegalovirus and Map Kinase Pathways
To replicate in the host cell, viruses commandeer cellular signaling pathways. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a DNA virus with that is widespread in the population but usually causes disease only in immunocompromised individuals and is also a viral cause o ...
Click To View Pathway IFN alpha signaling pathway
Interferon alpha plays a role in viral infections. Signaling takes place through an IFN Recpetor complex consisting of two alpha chains (Type I receptor) complexed with Jak1 and Tyk2. These kinases phosphorylate Stat1 and Stat2 respectively.
Click To View Pathway IFN gamma signaling pathway
Interferon gamma is secreted from CD4+ Th1 cells, CD8 cells, gamma/delta T cells and activated NK cells. It plays a role in activating lymphocytes to enhance anti-microbial and anti-tumor effects. In addition it plays a role in regulating the prolife ...
Click To View Pathway IGF-1 Signaling Pathway
Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) provide a potent proliferative signaling system that stimulates growth in many different cell types and blocks apoptosis. In vivo IGF-1 acts as an intermediate of many growth hormone resp ...
Click To View Pathway IL 17 Signaling Pathway
Inflammation is a complex response involving many different cells and signaling molecules, including the secretion of the cytokine IL-17 by activated T cells. IL-17 secretion is restricted to specific subsets of T cells but the receptor for IL-17 is ...
Click To View Pathway IL 18 Signaling Pathway
IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine similar in structure and mechanism of action to IL-1 beta. Formation of active IL-18 by macrophages requires cleavage of an inactive precursor by caspase-1 protease, also termed the IL-1 converting enzyme (ICE). O ...
Click To View Pathway IL 2 signaling pathway
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a potent cytokine that can lead to cellular activation and proliferation. IL-2 Receptors are found on activated B-Cells, LPS treated Monocytes, and many T cells. The receptor is formed from three chains alpha (CD25), beta (CD1 ...
Click To View Pathway IL 3 signaling pathway
Interleukin-3 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells through binding to its receptor. The receptor for IL-3 is a heterodimer with a ligand-specific alpha chain (70 kD, CD123) and a common beta chain (shared with IL-5 an ...
Click To View Pathway IL 4 signaling pathway
Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that can lead to development of Th2 cells. The 140 kD IL-4 Receptor (CD124) is found on many cell types, even those of non-hematopoietic origen. The receptor is formed from two chains: IL-4R(alpha) and the IL-2R gam ...
Click To View Pathway IL 5 Signaling Pathway
IL-5 is an inflammatory signaling molecule that primarily stimulates eosinophil proliferation, maturation and activation. Eosinophils are leukocytes involved in inflammatory responses that defend against parasites and cause some aspects of asthma, al ...
Click To View Pathway IL 6 signaling pathway
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that provokes a broad range of cellular and physiological responses. In addition to playing a role in inflammation and hematopoiesis, IL-6 is involved in other processes such as neuronal differentiation and bone los ...
Click To View Pathway IL-10 Anti-inflammatory Signaling Pathway
IL-10 is a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties, repressing the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 by activated macrophages. The IL-10 receptor is in the JAK/STAT class of receptors but activation of t ...
Click To View Pathway IL12 and Stat4 Dependent Signaling Pathway in Th1 Development
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) promotes cell-mediated immunity by inducing Th1 cell differentiation and activation of both T cells and NK cells. Dendritic cells and macrophages in peripheral tissues act as antigen presenting cells and secrete IL-12 as one c ...
Click To View Pathway IL-2 Receptor Beta Chain in T cell Activation
The IL-2 receptor is a key component of immune signaling and is required for the activation, proliferation, and survival of T cells. This receptor is composed of three polypeptide chains, the alpha, beta and gamma chains. The IL-2 receptor gamma ch ...
Click To View Pathway IL22 Soluble Receptor Signaling Pathway
IL-22 is an inflammatory cytokine related to IL-10 that is produced by T cells and that induces a response in cells through a heterodimeric cell surface receptor composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2C. One of the actions of IL-22 appears to be the inducti ...
Click To View Pathway IL-7 Signal Transduction
IL-7 is a key cytokine in the immune system, essential for normal development of B cells and T cells. Mice with the IL-7 receptor deleted lack B and T cells. Some humans with SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) also have mutation of the ...
Click To View Pathway Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Alzheimer's Disease
Pathways of microglia activation in Alzheimer's diseases. Microglia are bone marrow-derived cells that acquire ramified morphology in the intact CNS. In response to Ab deposition in AD, microglial cells are activated and differentiate into phagocytic ...
Click To View Pathway Inactivation of Gsk3 by AKT causes accumulation of b-catenin in Alveolar Macrophages
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from XX bacteria induces a wide range of inflammatory responses, including the response of alveolar macrophages to bacteria in the lungs. CD14 and the Toll-like receptor TLR4 are activated by LPS, initiating a signaling casc ...
Click To View Pathway Lck and Fyn tyrosine kinases in initiation of TCR Activation
T cell activation is initiated by recognition of antigen by the T cell receptor (TCR) in the context of Class II MHC on an antigen-presenting cell. The T cell receptor contains multiple subunits and interacts with several factors to transduce antigen ...
Click To View Pathway Lectin Induced Complement Pathway
The complement cascade of proteolytic factors involved in cellular lysis can be initiated by several different factors, including antibody-dependent and antibody-independent recognition of infectious organisms (see classical and alternative complemen ...
Click To View Pathway Monocyte and its Surface Molecules
Monocytes are a class of phagocytes involved in non-specific immune defense that develop into macrophages. In plasma, monocytes ingest and destroy bacteria, and can form macrophages when they enter the extracellular space in tissues. In addition to t ...
Click To View Pathway Msp/Ron Receptor Signaling Pathway
MSP, macrophage-stimulating protein, acts through the transmembrane receptor kinase RON (Stk in mice) to play a role in inflammation and the response to tissue injury. MSP is secreted by the liver into the blood as pro-MSP, an inactive precursor form ...
Click To View Pathway NALP3 Signaling Pathway
Muckle-Wells syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by recurrent fevers, neutrophilia, painful arthritis, skin rashes, and congenital deafness. This syndrome has been associated with mutations in the gene for NALP3, a member of ...
Click To View Pathway Neuropeptides VIP and PACAP inhibit the apoptosis of activated T cells
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the structurally related pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), two neuropeptides present in the lymphoid microenvironment, elicit a broad spectrum of biological functions, including the mo ...
Click To View Pathway Neutrophil and Its Surface Molecules
Neutrophils are important phagocytotic leukocytes (white blood cells) that internalize and destroy infectious bacteria by a respiratory burst of reactive oxygen species and by enzymatic digestion. Along with macrophages, neutrophils are crucial phag ...
Click To View Pathway NF-kB activation in T-cells
The transcription factor NF-kappa B has been implicated in the mitogen-induced expression of several genes that are critical for the immunologic function of T cells such as those encoding IL-2 and the IL- 2R alpha chain(IL-2R alpha). NF-kappa B is i ...
Click To View Pathway NO2-dependent IL 12 Pathway in NK cells
Macrophages and NK cells help provide innate immunity against infection by intracellular parasites and communicate with each other to regulate this process. When stimulated, macrophages secrete the cytokine IL-12 that is essential for activation of ...
Click To View Pathway Notch and thymocyte development
Click To View Pathway OX40 Signaling Pathway
Two key features of the immune system are the clonal expansion of B cells and T cells in response to antigens, and the potentiation of future immune responses by long-lived memory cells. CD4 expressing T cells require costimulatory signals along wit ...
Click To View Pathway Pertussis toxin-insensitive CCR5 Signaling in Macrophage
The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in macrophages are activated by their peptide ligands and also by the HIV envelope protein GP120 during HIV infection. One mechanism of signaling by these GPCRs is through activation of Gi signaling. These che ...
Click To View Pathway PPAR Gamma in Inflammation Control
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family. After activation by specific ligands, they regulate the transcription of genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose and energy homeostasi ...
Click To View Pathway Proteolysis and Signaling Pathway of Notch
Notch is a large cell-surface
Click To View Pathway Ras-Independent pathway in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity
NK (natural killer) cells are lymphocytes distinct from B and T cells that induce perforin-mediated lysis of tumor cells and virus-infected cells. NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity is activated by glycoproteins on the cell surface (activating receptors) ...
Click To View Pathway Recognition of Tumours by Innate Immune System
Immune cells constitute an important component of the host response to cancer. Both adaptive and innate immune systems play roles in tumor surveillance. The innate response includes soluble complement proteins and several cellular effectors, includin ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Interleukin-17
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory T cell cytokine presumably involved in physiological responses to infection, but also in immunopathology of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-17 induces the secretion of proinflammatory ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Dendritic Cell in the Pathogenesis of Asthma
Asthma is a chronic disease associated with abnormal lung physiology, including reversible airway obstruction and bronchial hyperreactivity. Infiltration of activated eosinophils in the airways was considered to be central to the pathophysiology of a ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor in Inflammation
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors from the nuclear receptor family, originally implicated in the regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. In addition, natural and synthetic PPAR activat ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Tob in T-cell activation
Regulation of T cell activation is a crucial component of balanced functioning of the immune system. If the T cell response is too great and activation of self-responsive cells or unstimulated cells is not suppressed, then autoimmune disorders or ti ...
Click To View Pathway Selective expression of chemokine receptors during T-cell polarization
Chemokine receptors expressed by T helper cells help recruit cells to specific locations based on their chemoattractant ligands. The polarization of T cells into Th1 and Th2 cells is associated with their expression of different subsets of chemokine ...
Click To View Pathway Signal transduction through IL1R
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that signals primarily through the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1). The activities of IL-1 include induction of fever, expression of vascular adhesion molecules, and roles in arthritis and septic sho ...
Click To View Pathway Synthesis of Cardiolipin & phosphatidylinositol
Phosphoglycerides are lipids that contain glycerol with a phosphate ester on one end and two fatty acid ester side chains. Phosphoglycerides such as phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine are the major component of lipid bilayer membranes ...
Click To View Pathway T Cell Receptor and CD3 Complex
The T cell receptor is a cell-surface receptor that recognizes specific antigen to stimulate the T cell response to that antigen. The T cell receptor complex of transmembrane proteins includes the T cell receptor that recognizes antigen and a set of ...
Click To View Pathway T Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway
The T Cell Receptor plays a key role in the immune system. The specificity of the receptor is governed by the binding site formed from the mature alpha and beta chains (shown here) or gamma and delta chains in gamma/delta T Cells. It is the ability o ...
Click To View Pathway T Cytotoxic Cell Surface Molecules
Cytotoxic T cells are a key part of the cellular immune response, killing cells that display foreign antigen on their surface, primarily virus-infected cells. Transformed cells can also be detected and eliminated by cytotoxic T cells. There are two ...
Click To View Pathway T Helper Cell Surface Molecules
T helper cells play an essential role coordinating the activities of other parts of the immune system, including B cells, cytotoxic T cells, macrophages and other cells. The crucial nature of helper T cells in the normal immune response is demonstra ...
Click To View Pathway TACI and BCMA stimulation of B cell immune responses.
TACI and BCMA signal transduction pathway that enhances cell survival APRIL and BAFF (also called TALL-I and BLyS) are TNF family members that act as ligands for the BCMA and TACI receptors. Both APRIL and BAFF bind to both the BCMA and TACI receptor ...
Click To View Pathway Th1/Th2 Differentiation
Helper T cells are found in two distinct cell types, Th1 and Th2, distinguished by the cytokines they produce and respond to and the immune responses they are involved in. Th1 cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFN-g, TNF-b and IL-2, whil ...
Click To View Pathway The 4-1BB-dependent immune response
The activation of T cells requires a co-stimulatory signal with T cell receptor activation, provided in many cases by activation of CD28 in resting T cells. 4-1BB (CD137) is a member of the TNF receptor gene family that provides another T cell co-st ...
Click To View Pathway The Co-Stimulatory Signal During T-cell Activation
For a T cell to be activated by a specific antigen, the T cell receptor must recognize complexes of MHCI with the antigen on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. T cells and the T cell receptor complex do not respond to antigen in solution, but ...
Click To View Pathway The Role of Eosinophils in the Chemokine Network of Allergy
The inflammatory response associated with asthma is characterized by the recruitment of eosinophils from the bronchial microcirculation in response to the regulated local production of chemoattractant molecules . Although several chemical mediators a ...
Click To View Pathway The SARS-coronavirus Life Cycle
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has affected thousands of individuals, causing fever, and pneumonia with a mortality rate estimated at 10-18%. A novel coronavirus has been identified as the cause agent and its genome has been sequenced. Hum ...
Click To View Pathway Toll-Like Receptor Pathway
The innate immune response responds in a general manner to factors present in invading pathogens. Bacterial factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin), bacterial lipoproteins, peptidoglycans and also CpG nucleic acids activate innate immuni ...
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