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Pathways  Neuroscience

Neuroscience  
Click To View Pathway Alpha-synuclein and Parkin-mediated proteolysis in Parkinson's disease
The motor defects of Parkinson
Click To View Pathway Biosynthesis of neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters are signaling molecules used by neurons to communicate across chemical synapses. The receptors for neurotransmitters include G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ligand-gated ion channels. The biogenic amines are neurotransmitter ...
Click To View Pathway Blockade of Neurotransmitter Relase by Botulinum Toxin
The neuromuscular junction communicates action potentials from motor neurons across a synapse to skeletal muscle. When an action impulse arrives at the neuromuscular junction, the entry of calcium through voltage-gated calcium channels causes synapt ...
Click To View Pathway Deregulation of CDK5 in Alzheimers Disease
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), a multi-functional kinase, and its neuron-specific activator p35 are required for neurite outgrowth and cortical lamination. Proteolytic cleavage of p35 produces p25, which accumulates in the brains of patients with ...
Click To View Pathway Endocytotic role of NDK, Phosphins and Dynamin
Reliable neurotransmitter release requires the presence of sufficent numbers of synaptic vesicles. The process of synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) is coordinated by a group of proteins called dephosphins. The current set of seven known dephosphin ...
Click To View Pathway Ephrins and Ephs: forward and reverse signalling
Ephrins are membrane-associated guidance molecules that play important roles in various biological processes such as cell migration, axon guidance, and synaptic plasticity. The A-subclass ephrins are tethered to the membrane by a GPI link, whereas th ...
Click To View Pathway Erythropoietin mediated neuroprotection through NF-kB
Erythropoietin (Epo) is most commonly known as the cytokine secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production and is used as a drug for the treatment of anemias. Epo is also secreted in the brain in response to hypoxia, such as ische ...
Click To View Pathway FOSB gene expression and drug abuse
Drug addiction is associated with long-term behavioral changes, suggesting a long-lived transcriptional regulator that responds to chronic drug exposure might cause long-term changes in neuronal function. Neurons in the nucleus accumbens and striati ...
Click To View Pathway Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Receptor Life Cycle
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that acts at synapses through binding to ligand-gated ion channels, the GABA receptors. Clustering of the GABA-A receptor chloride channel alters receptor pharmacology on the cell sur ...
Click To View Pathway Generation of amyloid b-peptide by PS1
Alzheimer's disease is associated with dense aggregations of proteins in the brain called amyloid plaques that contain beta-amyloid fragments as a primary component. If the development of amyloid plaques is responsible for neurodegeneration in Alzhe ...
Click To View Pathway Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Alzheimer's Disease
Pathways of microglia activation in Alzheimer's diseases. Microglia are bone marrow-derived cells that acquire ramified morphology in the intact CNS. In response to Ab deposition in AD, microglial cells are activated and differentiate into phagocytic ...
Click To View Pathway Inhibition of Huntington's disease neurodegeneration by histone deacetylase inhibitors
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative condition caused by a dominant mutation in a gene encoding a protein now called huntingtin. Large polyglutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein are the genetic defect responsible for this condition, caus ...
Click To View Pathway Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development
Integration of pathways that regulate nucleokinesis during neuronal migration and a model of LIS1 mediating CLIP-170 interactions with the dynein/dynactin pathway. LIS1 can bind to MT bundles; however, phospho-LIS1 binding to MT bundles is mediated t ...
Click To View Pathway Metabolism of Anandamide, an Endogenous Cannabinoid
The lipid anandamide derived from arachidonic acid binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptors CB-1 and CB-2 to exert its biological effects. The CB-1 receptor is also the site of action of the psychoactive components of marijuana, includin ...
Click To View Pathway Nerve growth factor pathway (NGF)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of a family of neurotrophins that induce the survival and proliferation of neurons. In cell culture NGF induces the formation of neurite projections and in vivo may stimulate the innervation of tissues. NGF plays a ...
Click To View Pathway Netrin Signaling in Axon Guidance
During embryonic and postnatal development of the nervous system, neuronal precursor cells have to migrate to their final destinations and axons have to navigate to the correct targets to establish normal connectivity. Neuronal migration and axon pat ...
Click To View Pathway Nogo-A Signal Transduction Pathway and Axon Regeneration
Injured CNS fibre tracts react to the lesion with a short-lasting repair response: they produce sprouts from the cut ends or as collaterals, and the respective cell bodies upregulate growth proteins, such as GAP-43. Sprouting turns into long-distance ...
Click To View Pathway Phosphorylation of MEK1 by cdk5/p35 down regulates the MAP kinase pathway
Map kinases transduce responses to extracellular signals by a variety of routes, and communicate with other pathways through extensive crosstalk networks. A closely studied Map kinase cascade originates with tyrosine kinase activation, and activatio ...
Click To View Pathway Prion Pathway
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) is thought to result from the structural conversion of cellular prion protein, PrP(C), into a misfolded oligomeric form, PrP(Sc). PrP is a cell membrane GPI anchored glycoprotein that is expressed in mos ...
Click To View Pathway Proteolysis and Signaling Pathway of Notch
Notch is a large cell-surface
Click To View Pathway Rac 1 cell motility signaling pathway
Rac-1 is a small G-protein in the Rho family that regulates cell motility in response to extracellular signals. Several changes in cytoskeletal structure and other aspects of cell structure are involved in cell motility. Rac-1 is activated by GEF f ...
Click To View Pathway Reelin Signaling Pathway
Reelin is an extracellular protein secreted by neurons. Reeler mice with a defective Reelin gene exhibit neuronal abnormalities in development. Mice that are heterozygous for the Reelin knockout have neuroanatomical and behavioral traits similar t ...
Click To View Pathway Repression of Pain Sensation by the Transcriptional Regulator DREAM
The molecular events that lead to the perception of pain are a key research field in medicine and drug discovery. The opioid receptors modulate pain signaling in response to endogenous peptide ligands and opiate drugs such as morphine. The kappa op ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Erk5 in Neuronal Survival
Axons extend significant distances to innervate target tissues. At the site of innervation, target tissues release neurotrophins including NGF, BDNF and neurotrophin-3 that stimulate the survival of the associated neuron. Local signaling by activat ...
Click To View Pathway Role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of apoptosis
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are essential for neuromuscular signaling and are also expressed in non-neuronal tissues, where their function is less clear. Although nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are primarily known for their action as ligand ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway
The motor defects of Parkinson's disease are related to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in specific brain regions. Examination of these neurons in diseased tissue has revealed the presence of Lewy bodies, dense aggregates that include the protein al ...
Click To View Pathway Semaphorin Signaling Pathway
The semaphorins are a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins that control axonal guidance. They have also been implicated in other biological processes, including the immune response. The human plexin gene family comprises at least nine ...
Click To View Pathway Stimulation of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling by Nitrous Oxide
Neurotransmitters are stored and released from synaptic vesicles. The store of neurotransmitter and vesicles would be rapidly depleted from neurons if not for mechanisms to reuptake neurotransmitters after their release and recycle vesicles. The re ...
Click To View Pathway Synaptic Proteins at the Synaptic Junction
The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a submembranous structure at the postsynaptic membrane mainly at the excitatory synapses. The neurotransmitter receptors are assembled and fixed at the PSD, and several molecules implicated in the synaptic plasticity ...
Click To View Pathway The IGF-1 Receptor and Longevity
A demonstrated means to increase lifespan in a wide range of organisms is through the restriction of caloric intake. Reducing the consumption of calories increases the lifespan of many different organisms, including mice. Although caloric restricti ...
Click To View Pathway The Role of Slit-Robo Pathway in Axon Guidance
Extending axons in the developing nervous system are guided in part by repulsive cues. Secreted Slit proteins have an evolutionarily conserved role in axon guidance as repulsive ligands for Robo receptors. In addition to acting as a chemorepellant fo ...
Click To View Pathway Transcription factor CREB and its extracellular signals
The transcription factor CREB binds the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) and activates transcription in response to a variety of extracellular signals including neurotransmitters, hormones, membrane depolarization, and growth and neurotrophic factor ...
Click To View Pathway Trka Receptor Signaling Pathway
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor that stimulates neuronal survival and growth through TrkA, a member of the trk family of tyrosine kinase receptors that also includes TrkB and TrkC. Some NGF responses are also mediated or modified b ...
Click To View Pathway Visual Signal Transduction
The signal transduction cascade responsible for sensing light in vertebrates is one of the best studied signal transduction processes, and is initiated by rhodopsin in rod cells, a member of the G-protein coupled receptor gene family. Rhodopsin rema ...
Click To View Pathway Vitamin C in the Brain
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) was first identified by virtue of the essential role it plays in collagen modification, preventing the nutritional deficiency scurvy. Vitamin C acts as a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that post-translationally modify col ...
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