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Pathways  Expression

Expression  
Click To View Pathway Acetylation and Deacetylation of RelA in The Nucleus
The rel/NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates the activity of genes involved in the immune response, hematopoeisis, and inflammation. NF-kB is a complex of two proteins, p65 (rel) and p50. NF-kB is held inactive in the cytoplasm by I-kB, un ...
Click To View Pathway Antisense Pathway
About 8% of human genes have been estimated to carry out transcription from both DNA strands, resulting in significant level of endogenous antisense RNA. In cytoplasm the antisense RNA leads to formation of long dsRNA, which activates the interferon ...
Click To View Pathway Basic mechanism of action of PPARa, PPARb(d) and PPARg and effects on gene expression
Similar to other nuclear hormone receptores, PPAR acts as a ligand activated transcription factor. Upon binding fatty acids or hypolipidemic drugs, PPARa interacts with RXR and regulates the expression of target genes. These genes are involved in the ...
Click To View Pathway CARM1 and Regulation of the Estrogen Receptor
Several forms of post-translational modification regulate protein activities. Recently, protein methylation by CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1) has been observed to play a key role in transcriptional regulation. CARM1 ass ...
Click To View Pathway Chromatin Remodeling by hSWI/SNF ATP-dependent Complexes
The eukaryotic genome is packaged by histone and nonhistone proteins to form chromatin. The assembly of nucleosomesas well as compaction of nucleosomal arrays into higher-order chromatin structures create a highly restrictive environment for nuclear ...
Click To View Pathway Circadian Rhythms
Organisms from flies to humans have daily circadian rhythms entrained with the 24-hour cycle of day and night that regulate many physiological systems. In mammals, there appears to be a master regulator of circadian rhythms in the hypothalamus, as we ...
Click To View Pathway Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Regulation of Xenobiotic Metabolism
Two nuclear receptors of xenobiotic drugs, PXR/SXR and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are central regulators of detoxification enzymes. PXR and CAR regulate overlapping but distinct sets of genes involved in all phases of xenobiotic metabolis ...
Click To View Pathway Control of Gene Expression by Vitamin D Receptor
The vitamin D receptor, VDR is the mediator of all genomic actions of vitamin D3 and its analogs. It belongs to a family of ligand induced transcription factors, nuclear receptors (NRs). Vitamin D3 is the main regulator of calcium homeostasis and is ...
Click To View Pathway Control of of p53 Subcellular Localization
p53 undergoes nuclear accumulation in response to DNA damage and other stresses, and mediates cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence. The mechanism leading to p53 activation involves phosphorylation and acetylation of p53 and changes in its subc ...
Click To View Pathway CTCF: First Multivalent Nuclear Factor
CTCF is central to signaling pathways in immature B cells elicited by cross-linking the Ig BCR and stimulation with TGFß. Both stimuli result in induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. BCR ligation stimulates a transient induction of MYC that l ...
Click To View Pathway Cysteine-Rich Protein61 Growth Suppression
Cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) is a member of a family of growth factor-inducible immediate-early genes. It regulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation and is involved in tumor growth. Cyr61 is a secreted protein that as ...
Click To View Pathway Degradation of the RAR and RXR by the proteasome
Once retinoids are bound by the RAR/RXR heterodimer they became transcriptional activated. As a consequence they are degraded by the proteasome. Phosphorylation in the activation domain one (AF1) and presence of the activation domain 2 (AF2) triger t ...
Click To View Pathway Dicer Pathway
The degradation of endogenous mRNA in a sequence-specific manner can be induced by dsRNA [RNA interfernce (RNAi)], antisense transcription, or viral infection. In the current model for posttranscriptional gene silencing by RNAi, the ribonuclease III ...
Click To View Pathway Double Stranded RNA Induced Gene Expression
One defense against viral infection is provided by PKR, double-stranded RNA activated protein kinase. When PKR interacts with dsRNA found in cells during viral infection, PKR phosphorylates itself and cellular proteins including the translation facto ...
Click To View Pathway Downregulated of MTA-3 in ER-negative Breast Tumors
Approximately 30% of breast carcinomas lack ER expression. Presumably, these breast cancers become estrogen independent through genetic alterations that bypass the requirement for ER-dependent stimulation of cell proliferation. As such estrogen recep ...
Click To View Pathway E2F1 Destruction Pathway
E2F-1 is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and that is involved in progression of the cell cycle from G1 into S phase. Over-expression of E2F-1 can induce cellular transformation and its under-e ...
Click To View Pathway Emerin Assited Gene Regulation
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is caused by mutations in emerin, an integral protein of the nuclear inner membrane. Emerin, a 34 Kd protein, is expressed in most human tissues but EDMD affects only three. The symptoms involve contractions ...
Click To View Pathway Epigenetic Control of rRNA Transcription
The genes that encode ribosomal RNA exist in two distinct types of chromatin — an 'open' conformation that is permissive to transcription and a 'closed' conformation that is transcriptionally refractive. Genomes of mammals contain several hundred gen ...
Click To View Pathway Eukaryotic protein translation
The scanning translation initiation model suggests that 40S ribosomal subunit preloaded with factors bind to the 5’ end of the mRNA near the cap. The 48S subunit moves along the mRNA until it finds the initiation triplet and in complex with tRNA and ...
Click To View Pathway FOSB gene expression and drug abuse
Drug addiction is associated with long-term behavioral changes, suggesting a long-lived transcriptional regulator that responds to chronic drug exposure might cause long-term changes in neuronal function. Neurons in the nucleus accumbens and striati ...
Click To View Pathway FXR and LXR Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism
Cholesterol is essential for life and a key in the development of heart disease. Cholesterol homeostasis is achieved through regulation of cholesterol uptake, cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol conversion to bile acids and excretion of bile acids. ...
Click To View Pathway GATA3 participate in activating the Th2 cytokine genes expression
CD4+ helper T cells differentiate into distinct subtypes, Th1 and Th2 cells. Th2 cells are involved in the response to extracellular helminthe parasites and allergic responses and secrete a distinct set of cytokines including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. ...
Click To View Pathway G-Protein Signaling Through Tubby Proteins
The tubby gene product is expressed in the brain and has been implicated by mouse genetics in obesity and other disorders such as blindness. Structural analysis predicted that this gene acts as a transcription factor, binding to DNA to regulate gene ...
Click To View Pathway Hop Pathway in Cardiac Development
Homeodomain transcription factors comprise a large family of DNA binding factors that regulate transcription and development. Many homeodomain genes arranged in genomic clusters determine anterior-posterior patterning, while others determine the fat ...
Click To View Pathway Hypoxia and p53 in the Cardiovascular system
Hypoxic stress, like DNA damage, induces p53 protein accumulation and p53-dependent apoptosis in oncogenically transformed cells. Unlike DNA damage, hypoxia does not induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest, suggesting that p53 activity is differential ...
Click To View Pathway Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in the Cardiovascular System
Hypoxia (or low O2 levels) affects various pathologies. First, tissue ischemia, a variation in O2 tension caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation, can lead to endothelial cell changes. For example, long periods of ischemia result in endothelial changes, such ...
Click To View Pathway Inhibition of Huntington's disease neurodegeneration by histone deacetylase inhibitors
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative condition caused by a dominant mutation in a gene encoding a protein now called huntingtin. Large polyglutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein are the genetic defect responsible for this condition, caus ...
Click To View Pathway Internal Ribosome Entry Pathway
Control of translation is one of the major regulatory events in eukaryotic gene expression. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) were first discovered in picornavirus RNAs but it is now clear that IRESs are also present in the 5’ untranslated region ...
Click To View Pathway Map Kinase Inactivation of SMRT Corepressor
Corepressors are coregulators that interact with transcriptional silencers in a variety of pathways such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Abnormal corepressor-silencer interactions have been implicated in a variety of human dise ...
Click To View Pathway Mechanism of Gene Regulation by Peroxisome Proliferators via PPARa(alpha)
The most recognized mechanism by which peroxisome proliferators regulated gene expresssion is through a PPAR/RXR heterodimeric complex binding to a peroxisome proliferator-response element (PPRE) (classical mechanism). However, there are the possibil ...
Click To View Pathway Mechanisms of transcriptional repression by DNA methylation
Tumorigenesis is known to be a multistep process in which defects in various cancer genes accumulate. Epigenetic modifications, most importantly DNA methylation events, are frequently involved in transcriptional changes in both tumor suppressor genes ...
Click To View Pathway METS affect on Macrophage Differentiation
Terminal differentiation of cells is often accompanied by repression of cellular proliferation, suggesting that there is a mechanism by which these cellular functions are coordinated. Macrophage differentiation is one model system in which this occu ...
Click To View Pathway mRNA Capping Reaction
All eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) undergo modification early in the transcription process that includes addition of 5' cap to mRNA. Capping occurs shortly after transcription begins, usually within the first 20-50 bases, and continues concurrent ...
Click To View Pathway Multi-step Regulation of Transcription by Pitx2
Many transcription factors play essential roles in normal development by determining the proliferation and differentiation of cells. The coordinated transcriptional control of proliferation in specific developmental cell types is crucial in multiple ...
Click To View Pathway NFAT and Hypertrophy of the heart (Transcription in the broken heart)
Hypertrophy associated with both hypertension and obstruction to ventricular outflow leads to pathologic cardiac growth and it is associated with increase morbidity and mortality. Symptomatic ventricular disease takes a growing toll on the health of ...
Click To View Pathway NF-kB Signaling Pathway
Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates expression of a large number of genes that are critical for the regulation of apoptosis, viral replication, tumorigenesis, inflammation, and various autoimmune diseases. The a ...
Click To View Pathway Nitrogen-depedent regulation of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in TOR pathway
Many key signaling molecules are conserved from yeast to man. mTOR is a protein kinase involved in nutrient and growth factor signaling in humans that has a yeast homolog with a similar role, TOR1. Like its human counterpart, yeast TOR1 is also inh ...
Click To View Pathway Nuclear receptors coordinate the activities of chromatin remodeling complexes and coactivators to facilitate initiation of transcription in carcinoma cells
RXR and RAR are nuclear receptors that bind either all trans retinoic (tRA) or 9cis retinoic acid (9cisRA). In the absence of ligand corepressors with histone deacetylase activity are bound to the RAR/RXR hetrodimer and suppress transcription. Once t ...
Click To View Pathway Nuclear Receptors in Lipid Metabolism and Toxicity
Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that are activated upon binding to its ligands. Initially, they had been classified as classic endocrine nuclear hormone receptors and orphan receptors. However, further studies have led to the identifica ...
Click To View Pathway Nucleotide Excision Repair
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) operates on bases damaged caused by exogenous agents, such as UV light or carcinogens. These mutagens cause alterations in the structure and/or chemistry of the DNA helix. The XPC-HR23B heterodimer recognizes this d ...
Click To View Pathway Overview of telomerase protein component gene hTert Transcriptional Regulation
Telomerase is an enzyme which replicates the terminal sequences of eukaryotic chromosomes, namely the telomeres. Cells which have an unlimited replicative capacity such as male germ cells and the majority of human cancers have high levels of telomera ...
Click To View Pathway Overview of telomerase RNA component gene hTerc Transcriptional Regulation
Telomerase is an enzyme which replicates the terminal sequences of eukaryotic chromosomes, namely the telomeres. Cells which have an unlimited replicative capacity such as male germ cells and the majority of human cancers have high levels of telomera ...
Click To View Pathway Oxidative Stress Induced Gene Expression Via Nrf2
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage biological macromolecules and are detrimental to cellular health. Electrophilic compounds, xenobiotics and antioxidants are sources of reactive oxygen species, creating oxidative stress that can harm cells. ...
Click To View Pathway p53 Signaling Pathway
p53 is a transcription factor who's activity is regulated by phosphorylation. The function is p53 is to keep the cell from progressing through the cell cycle if there is damage to DNA present. It may do this in multiple ways from holding the cell at ...
Click To View Pathway Polyadenylation of mRNA
Gene expression requires the coordination and integration of multiple processes, including transcription, splicing, polyadenylation, nucleocytoplasmic export, and translation of mRNAs. Posttranscriptional addition of poly (A) to the 3' end of mRNA is ...
Click To View Pathway RB Tumor Suppressor/Checkpoint Signaling in response to DNA damage
Cell cycle checkpoint controls at the G1 to S transition and the G2 to M transition prevent the cell cycle from progressing when DNA is damaged. The ATM protein kinase detects DNA damage and in response to this activates DNA repair factors and inhibi ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of eIF2
Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in the control of translation by eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2). eIF-2 binds GTP and Met-tRNAi and transfers the Met-tRNA to the 40S subunit, to form the 43S preinitiation complex. Later in the ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of eIF4e and p70 S6 Kinase
eIF-4F and p70 S6 kinase play critical roles in translational regulation. eIF-4F is a complex whose functions include the recognition of the mRNA 5' cap structure (eIF-4E), delivery of an RNA helicase to the 5' region (eIF-4A), bridging of the mRNA a ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of PGC-1a
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1a) is a tissue-specific coactivator that enhances the activity of many nuclear receptors and coordinates transcriptional programs important for energy metabolism and energy ho ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Spermatogenesis by CREM
The transcriptional regulator CREM plays a key role in spermatogenesis, acting as a central transcription factor triggering a cascade of transcriptional activation of post-meiotic genes involved in this process such as calspermin and testis angiotens ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Splicing through Sam68
While transcriptional regulation is often viewed as the most prevalent way extracellular signals to regulate gene expression, post-transcriptional regulation of splicing, RNA stability, and translation are also regulated by extracellular signals. Sa ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of Steroidogenesis by Orphan NuclearReceptor SF-1
The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 plays a central role in the development and differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. SF-1 controls the expression of all the steroidogenic enzymes and cholesterol transporters required for steroidogenesis as well as ...
Click To View Pathway Regulation of transcriptional activity by PML
The PML nuclear bodies are ring-shaped nuclear substructures associated with the regulation of transcription, transformation, cell growth, and apoptosis and are characterized by the presence of the protein PML. The activities of PML as a tumor suppr ...
Click To View Pathway Repression of Pain Sensation by the Transcriptional Regulator DREAM
The molecular events that lead to the perception of pain are a key research field in medicine and drug discovery. The opioid receptors modulate pain signaling in response to endogenous peptide ligands and opiate drugs such as morphine. The kappa op ...
Click To View Pathway RNA polymerase III transcription
Unlike the RNA polymerase II that transcribes a large variety of genes that encode proteins, RNA polymerase III transcribes only a limited number of genes (i.e., 5S rRNA. tRNA. 7SL RNA, U6 snRNA and a few other small stable RNAs); however, the transc ...
Click To View Pathway Role of HNF Transcription Factors in Diabetes
The HNF transcription factors regulate the development and function of the liver and of other tissues, including pancreatic islets. The transcriptional regulators HNF1a, HNF4A and HNF6 operate cooperatively in a connected network in the liver and in ...
Click To View Pathway Role of MEF2D in T-cell Apoptosis
Mef2 (Myocyte enhancer factor 2) transcription factors play a role in T-Cell Calcium Induced Apoptosis. Several factors regulate Mef2 transcription factors, including Map kinases and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes.

See also Control of s ...
Click To View Pathway Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor in Inflammation
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors from the nuclear receptor family, originally implicated in the regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. In addition, natural and synthetic PPAR activat ...
Click To View Pathway Role of PPAR-gamma Coactivators in Obesity and Thermogenesis
Nuclear hormone receptors are transcription factors that bind DNA and regulate transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. PPAR-gamma is a member of this gene family that is activated by fatty acids and thiazolidinedione drugs that plays a role in i ...
Click To View Pathway Roles of Nuclear Receptors in the Regulation of Bile Acid Metabolism and Cholesterol Homeostasis
In the body, cholesterol balance results from an equilibrium between supplies (diet and cellular de novo synthesis), and losses (cellular use and elimination in feces, essentially as bile acids). Nuclear receptors LXR and FXR play the central roles ...
Click To View Pathway Signal Dependent Regulation of Myogenesis by Corepressor MITR
The differentiation of muscle cells is regulated by many factors, including the MyoD/MEF2 family of transcription factors. The MyoD/MEF2 dimer binds to promoters to activate genes involved in muscle cell differentiation. One of the factors that reg ...
Click To View Pathway Spliceosomal Assembly
The assembly of the spliceosome is a dynamic process that involves both small ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), and non-snRNP proteins. The complete spliceosome consists of 5 snRNPs (U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6) and 50-100 non-snRNP factors. (Most ar ...
Click To View Pathway SREBP control of lipid synthesis
Sterol-regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) play a key role in transcriptional regulation of cholesterol metabolism in response to cholesterol levels in the cell. When cholesterol is abundant in the cell, the SREBPs are retained in the ER. ...
Click To View Pathway Stat3 Signaling Pathway
STATs, Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription, are transcription factors that are phosphorylated by JAK kinases in response to cytokine activation to then dimerize and move into the nucleus to activate transcription of cytokine-responsive ...
Click To View Pathway SUMOylation as a mechanism to modulate CtBP-dependent gene responses
Covalent attachment of one eukaryotic protein to another is a prominent posttranslational modification and Ubiquitin is the most familiar of the protein modifiers. Recently a new group of ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins have come to light. One of the ...
Click To View Pathway Sumoylation by RanBP2 Regulates Transcriptional Repression
Current data indicates that nuclear pore complex (NPC) RanBP2 (SUMO E3 ligase) protein sumoylates Mdm2 and HDAC proteins during nuclear translocation. A sumoylation-deficient HDAC showed reduced deacetylation activity and suggests that sumoylation ma ...
Click To View Pathway The information-processing pathway at the IFN-beta enhancer
The packaging of eukaryotic DNA into nucleosomes inhibits the access of factors to DNA and results in the repression of transcription, replication and recombination. Local modification of histones on enhancers and promoters is required to activate ge ...
Click To View Pathway The Liver X Receptor as a Key Regulator of Cholesterol and Lipid Metabolism
The liver X receptors alpha and beta (LXR alpha and LXR beta) are members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins that are critical for the control of lipid homeostasis in vertebrates. LXRs serve as cholesterol sensors that regulate the expression ...
Click To View Pathway The Nuclear Pregnane X Receptor as a Generalized Sensor of Hydrophobic Toxins
The nuclear pregnane X receptor/ steroid and xenobiotic receptor (PXR/ SXR) is an important component of the body’s adaptive defense mechanism against toxic substances. PXR serves as a generalized xenobiotic, steroid, and bile acid sensor. It is acti ...
Click To View Pathway The PRC2 Complex Sets Long –term Gene Silencing Through Modification of Histone Tails
Packaging of DNA into chromatin allows the cell to store its genetic information efficiently and has an important role in regulating gene expression. Recent studies have revealed that chromatin structure can be altered by covalent modification of nuc ...
Click To View Pathway The Role of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) in Regulation of Bile Acid Homeostasis
Bile acids are essential for the solubilization and transport of dietary lipids and are the major products of cholesterol catabolism. Bile acids are ligands for the nuclear receptor FXR and regulate expression of genes whose products are critically i ...
Click To View Pathway Transcription factor CREB and its extracellular signals
The transcription factor CREB binds the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) and activates transcription in response to a variety of extracellular signals including neurotransmitters, hormones, membrane depolarization, and growth and neurotrophic factor ...
Click To View Pathway Transcription Regulation by Methyltransferase of CARM1
Several forms of post-translational modification regulate protein activities. Recently, protein methylation by CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1) has been observed to play a key role in transcriptional regulation. CARM1 ass ...
Click To View Pathway Transcriptional activation of dbpb from mRNA
Endothelial cells respond to treatment with the protease thrombin with increased secretion of the PDGF B-chain. This activation occurs at the transcriptional level and a thrombin response element was identified in the promoter of the PDGF B-chain ge ...
Click To View Pathway Tumor Suppressor Arf Inhibits Ribosomal Biogenesis
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A (CDKN2A) goes by the colloquial designation p16, which is sometimes referred to as p16(INK4). The alpha transcript of CDKN2A has been shown to encode p16(INK4a), a recognized tumor suppressor that induces a G1 cel ...
Click To View Pathway Xenobiotic Metabolism
Xenobiotics are chemicals not produced in the body that enter from a variety of sources, including environmental toxins and pharmaceuticals. As an adaptation to protect the body from the potential harmful effects of compounds, a pathway of xenobioti ...
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